The age was marked by various critical tectonic occasions that made the scene we know today. One such occasion was the joining of the tectonic plates of North and South America. This joining was realized by a movement of the Caribbean Plate, which moved somewhat eastwards and structured an area connect over the Isthmus of Panama. The association between North and South America had a noteworthy effect on widely varied vegetation in two regards: (1) ashore, the production of an area extension empowered animal groups to relocate between the two landmasses (Cane et al, 2001 412). This prompted a relocation of armadillo, ground sloth, and porcupines from South to North America and an attack of canines, felines, bears and steeds in the inverse bearing. (2) The joining of the two tectonic plates likewise prompted changes in the natures domain. An environment with species that had been associating for billions of years now got divided into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This thus had a critical effect on the advancement of the species which got disconnected from one another.
Throughout the Pliocene the tectonic plates of India and Asia additionally impacted, which framed the Himalayas. In North America, the Cascades, Rockies, Appalachians, and the Colorado levels were elevated, and there was movement in the mountains of Alaska and in the Great Basin reaches of Nevada and Utah. The end of the Pliocene was checked in North America by the Cascadian transformation, throughout which the Sierra Nevada was hoisted and tilted to the west. In Europe, numerous mountain ranges developed, including the Alps, which were collapsed (Dowsett, 2007 478).
Throughout the span of the Pliocene, the worldwide atmosphere got to be cooler and drier. The start of the age saw various changes in temperature, which offered route to the general cooling pattern towards the end