Geology is the science of study of solid Earth, and in particular, the rock formations to be found underneath a specific piece of land. Geology acquires new importance in urban areas as high-density populations are found in urban areas. Its relevance cannot be dismissed as many of modern-living or urban lifestyle problems can be solved or remedied by knowledge of the urban geology of a city, whether it is near the sea, a body of water like a lake, or a mountain that is also prone to environmental hazards like landslides and flash floods. Another example is the presence of underground water in urban areas where geology is important in building high-rise structures.
Vital data and findings derived from geologic studies are very important in construction and engineering, such as where to best locate infrastructure projects like a pier, seaport or airport where there is underlying strength of the geologic materials to support such undertaking, prevent serious damage if there is an earthquake, and in general, make these structures safe so there will be no need to worry about the stability of these structures over the long term. Ignorance of these findings can have serious negative consequences like finding cracks on newly-built buildings.
Land is a limited resource and so urban geology is used to determine the selection of the sites to build on. In highly-urbanized areas like the mega-cities of the world today, it is a must for engineers to have a firm grasp of urban geology to build the best structures they can possibly build, like very high structures comprising several floors upwards. The race to build the tallest buildings in the world are based on geology. Building upwards is the solution to limited land (reclaiming parts of the sea is also possible) as horizontal expansion is often not possible in most urban areas. An example is Hong Kong where many