nd non-conventional information combined with the analytical framework of fuzzy logic that increasing trends of jellyfish abundance were identified to be 62% of the Large Marine Ecosystems (LME).
Management and adaptation strategies see to the logical expansion to these articles. However, as with the limited research available on the number of jellyfish, the limited research on management focuses upon human interactions with jellyfish in a way to compensate for the lack of evidence and data. Most management of jellyfish populations is done in context with the fisheries, power generation and tourism industries and management in relationship to their impacts on ecosystems and vital food webs. This is obviously due to their great socio-economic impact hence it is more likely to be funded or pursued. ‘The jellyfish joyride: Causes, Consequences and Management response to a more gelatinous future’ by Richardson et al in 2009 provides a thorough table of management responses from the perspective of both ecosystem and human impacts but it is a brief outline.
The recent book ‘Jellyfish Blooms’ devotes an entire chapter to management from a human interaction standpoint. Options presented in the book include: 1) prediction of impending jellyfish blooms via ‘early warning systems’ and appropriate countermeasures before outbursts; 2) Jellyfish Excluder for Towed fishing gear (see Figure 6.3); 3) physical and behavioral screens and barriers; 4) education of when it’s safe to swim to reduce encounters with jellyfish; and 5) modeling programs that predict the distribution of jellyfish so effective forecasts and warning systems can be put in place.
Noteworthy is that both the articles and the research have a predominance of negativity toward jellyfish which cannot be denied. With synanthropic nature (Purcell, 2007) of jellyfish benefiting from human stressors including fishing, eutrophication and possibly global warming, these fierce ancient competitors pose