Diatom species fall under Bacillariophyta taxa. According to Stoermer and Eugene et al (38), although many species of diatom family may still be unknown, current studies reveal approximately more than ten thousand species. Research backs this up by coming up with statistics that they are the most prevalent in most marine set ups. The key feature with diatoms is that they are used forensically to identify and differentiate different distinct species. The diatomic carapace is a blend of silica component (made up of organic carbon). The carapace composition involves the overlying epitheca and the underlying hypotheca. The two posterior side to side surfaces appear like lock-and-key apparatus. One unique diatom cell can be shielded in the carapace to protect it from harmful environmental factors which may terminate their life cycle. Diatom are known to have distinct features. The carapace for instance have flamboyant over-elaborate designs which clearly depict unique pores. These pores are crucial in that they allow efficient gaseous exchange within the diatom. They also allow effective sense of the surrounding environment and rapid response to the changing systems within the water body.
The diatom research analysis majoring on carpenter Bayou water systems where samples of mud, mineral debris, and organic matter were collected dating to 2015, January. A plastic tube was vertically inserted into the mud to collect the samples. The main objective of this technique was to reduce the highest sand fraction and the lowest clay fraction so as to retain the diatom sample. To obtain the actual diatom cells, 1 gram of the sediment was poured via a sieve to clear any sediments. The purifying procedure was repeated thrice using 45, 90 and 125 micrometers blended with distilled water. The solute that remained in the sieve (mainly diatoms) were spread in a petri dish for four days. This was followed by sample transfer to slides fully