The pursuit has led to the physicists forming several pyramid ideas. In the book, Carroll (2012) gives the history in relation to the formation of the Higgs boson. The story begins 2, 500 years ago with the Greets and ends with an atom smasher that led to Higgs discovery. The atom smasher weighs 12, 500 ton and is the tool used in the discovery of the Higgs boson.
Human curiosity is the fundamental thing when it comes to invention and innovation. Since the ancient Greek’s time, humans have been curious to understand the basic principles that govern the Universe functions. The desire to understand the world is the basis of particle physics. If not the desire, it would not be important since it does not affect our day to day lives. 1970s is the period under which the characterized by a distinct experimental result that was deemed impossible before. The innovation that was experienced among the machines had improved greatly during this period. 1970s is the period that the “Standard Model” (Carroll, 2012) which was a pillar stone on the Higgs boson discovery. The model helped in the description of the elementary particles like the gluons, quarks and neutrinos.
Carroll (2012) describes matter to be made of small particles that are known as atoms. Atoms are not divisible and consist of nucleuses that are made of neurons and protons. The neurons and protons are indivisible and orbited by a number of electrons. The neurons and protons are made of smaller particles that are called quarks. Quarks and electrons are referred to as elementary particles. The atomic nucleus neurons and protons are made of ‘up’ and ‘down’ quarks. Every single piece of matter is therefore made up of up quarks, down quarks and electrons. Matter particles are of twelve distinct kinds broadly divided into six quarks and six leptons. The six quarks interact closely and are confined in larger groups like neutrons and protons. The six