The diagrams demonstrate the concept of reflection and refraction. In the diagram above, a light ray strikes the mirror at a specific point, and the reflected ray is projected. The law of reflection state that the angle of incidence (i) and the angle of reflection (r ) are equal. The experiment demonstrated specular reflection because it involved the use of smooth surfaces to demonstrated the behavior of light waves. The experiment aided in confirming the three laws of reflection (Strong 8), which include:
The refraction experiment involved the observation of how light waves behave as they travel through air and water. Generally, the incident ray is partially reflected and refracted. Theoretically, the concept of refraction is explained Snell’s law, which states that the ratio of the sines of the angle of reflection and the angle of reflection are equivalent to the ratio produced by the phase velocities in the two media in which the wave travels (Dekker 168).
The change in the direction as light travels from one medium to the next was observed when the straight pencil observed in water appeared bent at the water surface. The pencil was placed in a slanted position because refraction cannot occur if the angle of incidence is zero degrees. The pencil appeared slant as shown in Fig 2 because the light rays bend as they pass from air into water. The speed and wavelength of the light rays changed while the frequency was constant. When the bent rays reach the eye, they are interpreted as straight lines of sight. The straight lines of sight interpreted by the eye intersect at a position that is higher than the actual origin the rays. Thus, the water appears shallow and pencil much higher than its original depth. The behavior of light in different media is explained by the refractive index.
Reflection and refraction concepts have been applied in the field of thin film