This phenomenon is known as earth energy budget or earth energy balance. There are many factors that can deteriorate this balance and can contribute to significant changes in the climate of the earth. Earth Atmosphere: To understand how energy is received and returned to maintain energy balance it is important to understand what constitutes the atmosphere. There are five layers that surrounds the earth; exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and troposphere. Exosphere is the most outer space with particles so far apart that they do not affect the pathway of radiations from sun. Troposphere is the innermost layer that span from the earth surface to about 10 kilometers above. This layer is important as it provides the maximum reflection of radiation as discussed below. The following diagram (fig 1) demonstrates the inner three layers of earth atmosphere. Fig 1. Inner three layers of earth’s atmosphere Incoming radiation: Radiations from sun experience no interference as they travel undisturbed in space to reach the earth’s atmosphere. In the atmosphere, there are different layers with variable densities of gases and other molecules. When these radiations collide with these molecules they are deflected in many directions, a phenomenon known as scattering. An important concept to remember here is that these radiations that reach the earth have very small wavelength and not all but a small selective proportion of electromagnetic radiations can be scattered by molecular collision. (Ahrens, 2012). The rest of energy is absorbed by the earth system in various forms. Most of the energy is absorbed by the solid earth that increases the core and surface temperature. Part of the energy is absorbed by clouds, water vapors and other molecules present in the earth atmosphere. The following diagram (fig 2) represents the overall exchange budget of earth’s energy. Figure 2. Earth’s energy balance It is evident from the diagram that the total incoming energy absorbed by the earth system almost equals to the energy returned back to space thus maintaining energy balance. Outgoing radiations: The radiations received from sun can be returned back to space by two basic mechanisms as explained below. Reflection: Some of the energy that enters the atmosphere is reflected back as same short wavelength radiations identical to what was received from sun. Different component of earth’s atmosphere have variable ability to reflect these radiations and this property is known as ‘albedo’. Therefore, various surfaces have variable albedo. For example, deserts have high albedo because they are able to reflect about 40% of the radiations that reach them back into the space. On the other hand, ocean surfaces and rainforests have low albedo as they are able to reflect only a small proportion of radiations. (Ahrens, 2012). It is important to understand that those surfaces that have lower albedo tend to retain heat more than those with higher reflection abilities. By looking at fig 2, it can be observed that only a part of the radiations, about 30%, are reflected back into the space by earth surface, clouds and scattering process. There should be another way of returning the remaining 70% of the radiations which were absorbed by the atmosphere and the earth. Emission: Thermic emission is the most
Earth Energy Balance Introduction: Sun is an essential source of energy for all the organisms on this planet and they benefit from it either directly or indirectly. There is little doubt that sun generate enormous amount of heat and radiation that travels a long distance to reach the earth…
This term paper has a topic of “minimizing energy consumption by developing social awareness in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia”and it is very important to present this idea. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is known as the largest oil producer in the world and domestically its primary energy demand has been high as well.
At the edges of these plates are what is known as volcanoes, openings in the surface of the earth that can at times spew hot ash, steam, lava, and molten magma that will obliterate anything and everything in their paths. They are aptly and appropriately named, given their designation long ago by the ancient Romans, who witnessed many eruptions on the island of Vulcano, and thus gave the name to the spitting mountains of molten lava in tribute to Vulcan, their god of fire and maker of weapons (Decker and Decker 7).
U.S policy on energy Executive summary
There is high likelihood of the pipeline spillage which can lead to damage to the ecosystem. The pipeline will increase the pollution levels in the refineries. The pipeline will also increase the tar sands oils toxic to the rivers hence there will be high instances of diseases like cancer.
It is indeed true that the usage of fossil fuels offers many advantages (Borowitz, 2004). First and foremost the fossil fuels happen to be easily accessible. Fossil fuels are found in abundance on the planet earth and can readily be extracted and used to meet the human energy needs (Borowitz, 2004).
Renewable energy resources are the best alternative compared to the other forms of energy. This article generally describes how energy can be taped from existing building, from gyms during workouts; from the floors using piezoelectric materials, the energy can be combined with that generated from other renewable energy resources.
For close to twenty years, the government of Finland has aimed at producing as much electricity as it can through the combined power plants and heat popularly known as CHP. In this regard, Finland ranks among the
The temperature of the planet stays stable when there is an energy balance between how much shortwave radiation emitted by the sun is absorbed by the earth and then how much long wave is reflected back in the space.
Individuals like Dr. Anand Karve, who is the president of ARTI Biogas plant, have made major contributions. Dr. Anand developed a compact digester machine that produces biogas energy from food waste. The plant uses starchy