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Nanotechnology - Essay Example

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1342-1347; Roco, 2001,pp. 225-233; Singh, Olson, & Maher, 2007, pp. 189-190; Takagi , Hirose A, Nishimura, Fukumori, Ogato, Ohashi, Kitajima & Kanno, 2008, pp. 105-116; Takenaka ,Karg , Roth, Schulz , Ziesenis, Heinzmann, Chramel, & Heyder, 2001, 547-461; Tinkle, Antonini, Roberts , Salmen, DePree & Adkins, 2003, pp, 1202-1208; Tran, BuBuchanan, Cullen, Searl, Jones, & Donaldson, 2000, pp, 1113-1126; Vincent & Clement, 2000, pp. 2673-2682. ). Describe the down and bottom up approach to nanotechnology There are two approaches in synthesizing nano materials and the creation of nano structures. These are top-down and bottom-up approaches (Gitam University, 2013). Top down approach is the slicing or successive cutting of a bulk material to get nano sized particle (Gitam University, 2013; Srinivasan, 2008, p. 1-3; Sullivan, 2001, pp. 51-53).  Bottom up approach, on the other hand, refers to the build-up of a material from the bottom (Gitam University, 2013). This means materials are reduced atom by atom, molecule by molecule or cluster by cluster. Both approaches are considered crucial in the development of modern nano industry and both possessed advantages and disadvantages (Gitam University, 2013).  Experts cited that process of attrition or milling is a common top down method in establishing nano particles while the colloidal dispersion is a bottom up type approach in synthesizing nano particles (Gitam University, 2013; Iqbal, Preece, & Mendes, 2012, p, 1). Experts explained that the problem with top down approach is the surface structure imperfection and the potential crystallographic damages in the construction method (Gitam University, 2013). This posed additional challenges in the architectural design and fabrication of matters although the application remained favourable to the production of nano materials albeit some limitations and risks posed by researchers (Gitam University, 2013; Brown, 2002, p. 1). Notwithstanding defects, nanotech continues to play an important role in the synthesis of nano structures (Gitam University, 2013). The century is experiencing this advancement. This is even done in the production of salt and nitrate in chemical industry(Gitam University, 2013; Institute Of Nanotechnology, 2003, p, 245). Long ago, people are already content to use rock salt as mixture and for food preservation. These days, there are already iodized salt that are reduced into minute particles in the market. Hence, tools are now made with nanometer scale to produce nano structures with less defects, and more homogeneous chemical composition (Gitam University, 2013; Institute Of Nanotechnology, 2003, p, 245). Unlike the bottom up approach, the top-down method introduces internal stress, surface defects and possible contamination. To further cite an example, electronic integrated circuits are created using top-down process with limitations described (Gitam University, 2013; Institute Of Nanotechnology, 2003, p, 245). Bottom-up approach assembles materials in supramolecular chemistry that combined an alternative route (Gitam University, 2013; Institute Of Nanotechnology, 2003, p, 245). Indicate the current stage of technology progress towards each of these. The development of laptops, microchips for information archiving, production of scanning tunneling microscope, digital cameras with zooming lenses that capture and ...Show more


Topic Professor Nanotechnology has dramatically taken the center of development in this decade of information technology. Its exponential growth in the production of nanostructured gadgets and nano devices expanded the opportunities specially that its application deals with the essential application of for information, communication, science, technology, pharmaceuticals and to healthcare…
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Nanotechnology essay example
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