Part 1: Procedures in the physical sciences: Challenges in measurements Challenges to making direct measurements in physical sciences, earth science One of the challenges to making direct measurements is susceptibility to error such as challenge in the ability to make “accurate measurements of soil C02 efflux” (Yiqi and Zhou, 2010, p. 162). The efflux challenge is majorly a factor of the carbon oxide’s physical property that allow for its diffusion in soil and in air. The rate of diffusion is further dependent on environmental factors such as pressure and concentration differences and the variability determines the extent to which error can be realized in measurements. The accuracy challenge also varies with the depth of soil from which measurement is to be taken and these factors means that derived information from direct measurement of carbon IV oxide concentration may not be reliable (Yiqi and Zhou, 2010). Another challenge to direct measurements is the extensive time that for the measurements, the measurement process that must acquire and install measurement equipments is a major factor. Time challenge also arises from the need to follow the equipments designed modalities for measurements. Time is further a challenge when the measurement is required for urgent utility and may render subsequent processes unnecessary if the urgency elapses. High costs of making direct measurements is another challenge that phase physical sciences’ procedures, especially in earth science in which instruments for conducting research are complex and therefore expensive. Transportation of the instruments and their operations also identify high cost that may limit application of direct measurement approaches (Hydrology 2020 Working Group, 2006). Application of indirect forms of measure to overcome the challenge While direct measurements may be challenged because of environmental factors around a subject variable or resources for direct measurements, there are strategies for overcoming these challenges to ensure that desired measurements are achieved through indirect methods. Application of factors that exhibit a strong correlation with the subject variable for measurement is one of the approaches that scientists have applied. The indirect method facilitates measurements in cases where direct measurements are too expensive or not available for application. Addition of treatment conditions is another strategy that scientists have used to meet challenges that face direct measurement methods. The treatment conditions may aim at generating more reliable variables that are correlated with the primary variable. The secondary measures are independent of variable environmental factors to direct measurement (Rabinovich, 2005). Historically influential tools or techniques in physical sciences Two statistical tools, regression analysis, and analysis of variance are some of the influential tools that have been applied in physical sciences. Regression analysis develops relationships among variables and facilitates prediction of value of an unknown variable based on determinable value of another variable and its scope has been essential in indirect measurement methods. Analysis of variance is another fundamental tool that has been used in physical science research and it evaluated differences in values among measurements. It also determines existence of dependence among variables (World Scientific, 2009). Application of the tools and
Lab research report 1: Procedures in the physical science Introduction Physical science defines the study of physical and chemical features of nature and its scientific approach identifies the need for research towards knowledge development and resolution of existing problems about the branch of science…
Since 19th century scientists were aware of some unique identity of an individual which distinguish from others, like finger prints. In 1970, DNA was established as key element in human life and which makes individual as unique creature. Variability in DNA sequences among individual to individual have attracted forensic experts to develop technique based on DNA to identify individual or criminal similar to finger prints.
The first stage is to obtain a specimen which may be from from tissue or culture collections. In the second stage, laboratory analysis which involves extraction of genetic material to obtain DNA batcode sequence is done. These sequences are later
1. E. coli is in competition with S. euglensis at a temperature of 20-35 degrees and a pH of 6-7.5. E. coli is also in competition with N. atol at a temperature of 20-30 degrees and a pH of 4.5 -6.5. P.
On the other hand, yield stress is the point at which a material permanently deforms (Lees, 2011). Stress often causes a material to stretch, which ultimately makes it to strain. In this case, strain it measures the extent a material is stretched.
o calibrate the pressure transducer and then perform an uncertainty analysis and compare your pressure transducer calibration to the manufacturer’s calibration.
1. Excite the pressure transducer, with a voltage of 10v. The figure above had J17 and J18 as AO (Analog Out). It
In alloys, the physical properties of strength, corrosiveness and conductivity are determined by composition of transition metals and trace elements like carbon and manganese. In application, precisely determining the quantity of a transition metal in steel is
This paper looks into the experimental procedure, findings and discusses the findings from generation of the light using two quenchers.
Quenching of luminescence occurs when impurities are added to a phosphor ,when
There have been studies on performance of solid state oxygen sensors before with emphasis on other metals and materials in construction and calibration. This paper, however, focuses on the use of silicon rubber as the main material in construction and
7 pages (1750 words)Lab Report
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