The setting of a state’s welfare is decisive to the operation of the state and the health of the citizens. It is vital to discuss the differences in state welfare regimes. This helps in understanding the differences in state operations and the health of its population among countries. Esping-Andersen came up with the most relevant typology for welfare states. Esping-Andersen using classical European political economy approach differentiates between three types of welfare regimes (Edwards, 2003). Esping-Andersen differentiates the state welfare regimes on three major principles. These principles are social stratification, deco-modification and the public private mix. Deco-modification refers to the extent to which the welfare of the individual is independent of the market. It also refers to the individual’s ability to receive social services as a right. Social stratification describes the welfare state role in matters concerning structure of the society according to Schildt (2010). Lastly, public-private mix focuses on roles played by the state, the market, family and the voluntary sector in the particular welfare regimes. Espin-Andersen identifies three main types of welfare regimes: the conservative, social democratic and the liberal welfare regime models as noted by Edwards (2003). The liberal model incorporates free market maximization for the market maintenance. It makes the assumption that all people are able to participate in the market. The underlying idea in market participation leads to freedom of competition. It emphasizes on public and private sector partnership. The workers in liberal model are unlikely to be fully co-modified, however they advocate for cash compensation. According to Annamari (2009), the liberal model of state welfare regime is found in countries like England and the United States of America Conservative Welfare Regime The conservative welfare regime is popular in countries like Germany, France and Belgium among others. It promotes social assistance and provides for extensive welfare services for all the population. This model perceives the state as a minimal interventionist. Esping-Andersen argues that categorizing the European welfare states as part of the conservative model can be viewed as pejorative (Edwards, 2003). Social Democratic Welfare Regime Social democratic welfare is popular with Nordic countries. It is also referred to as Nordic Model. The social democratic model espouses individualism thus removing individual reliance on the family and it is associated with expensive taxes. This model has an element of egalitarianism which depicts the practice of universalism. The model is also individual oriented as it promotes their well-being (Larsen, 2006). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Comparing Welfare States Using Esping-Andersen’s Welfare Regime Esping-Andersen model has been of importance in as far classification of states according to welfare regimes. The model has several advantages which makes it remain more relevant compared to other welfare regimes. In as far as the social democratic welfare regime is concerned; it is redistributive in terms of the states wealth. Universal welfare and systems of benefits are used as rights and there is public provision of the universal welfare services. Esping-Andersen’s social democratic model depends on high employment levels and thus offers women employment. It also provides less emphasis on the family’s responsibility for its members’ welfare as opposed to other models. The state therefore assumes most of the family responsibility (Larsen, 2006). The elements of egalitarianism depict in Esping-Andersen’s model the practice of universalism as suggested by Mann (2001). The advantage here is that every citizen enjoys same benefits and rights as well regardless of whether they are rich or not. This means that there is equal provision of services without
The setting of a state’s welfare is decisive to the operation of the state and the health of the citizens. It is vital to discuss the differences in state welfare regimes. This helps in understanding the differences in state operations and the health of its population among countries…
There are various types of regime changes. Regime changes can come about in three ways. The first one is the normal transition more so through elections, then secondly through coup de tat and finally through external forces Regime change in Libya since 1951 The general transition, which is characterized by democracy where by a new political regime comes into office after elections, usually involves changes in policy and ideology.
However, the administration was carried out with the cooperation of the Ministry of International Trade (MITI) and Industry and the bank of Japan. MITI also handled licenses related to exports and imports. However, the authority for approving major payments was given to the authorized banks in Japan.
This essay mainly focuses on the main challenges, which the Nordic Welfare model is currently facing. Nordic countries were always accused of charging a high individual tax rates as well as high corporate taxes. The demographic shift in Nordic countries also presents an important challenge for the viability of their economic systems.
These include, but are not limited to market, family, church, friends and private institutions and the state in its provision of social services; in all business of State and its provision of social services, the main feature lie in insurance for a better future.
Distribution of wealth, equality of opportunities and public responsibility are the principles of a welfare state. There are three main families of explanations in welfare development which include, political institutions, political culture and social actors (University 36-109).
These are the recipients of doles administered by the state. However experts who dabble in the field of public policy and social work use the terms Welfare system in a broader and inclusive meaning to explain any strategy either private or government funded that empower people to perform more fully in a social milieu.
The author states that the social democratic model measures universality of public welfare entitlements, frees citizens from their reliance on the market and ‘decommodifies’ labour. Esping-Andersen refers to the term ‘decommodification’ as the extraction of an individual from dependency on the market.
According to the report the study of social policy is concerned with an understanding of social problems such as unemployment and old age, determination of the collective response to these social conditions and the analysis of administrative practices such as social security, community care and housing management.