Liberalim i the culmination of development in Wetern ociety that produced a ene of the importance of human individuality, a liberation of the individual from complete ubervience to the group, and a relaxation of the tight hold of cutom, law, and authority. The emancipation of the individual can be undertood a a unique achievement of Wetern culture, perhap it very hallmark. (Necati , 1998, pp. 447-477)
Liberalim alo derive from the practice of adverariality in European political and economic life, a proce in which intitutionalized competition-uch a the competition between different political partie in electoral contet, between proecution and defene in judicial procedure, or between different producer in a free-market economy-i ued to generate a dynamic ocial order. Adverarial ytem have alway been precariou, however, and it took a long time for the belief in adverariality to emerge from the more traditional view, traceable at leat to Plato, that the tate hould be an organic tructure in which the different ocial clae cooperate by performing ditinct yet complementary role. The belief that competition i an eential part of a political ytem and tha4 good government require a7vigorme Oppoiion wa 4all c/nideped drange in eop Edropean c/uft2ia in he Epl9 19th7centUry. (Ne#at( , 19, pp,7447-077)
Each nati/N' lHike other polhti"al octrind, lib%0al)m7i hig(ly enitiva 4k tIMe aNd bhpcumtance
Each nati/N' liberalim i different, and it ahange in each generation. The hitorical development of liberAlii over recent centurie ha been a movement from mitrup of the taTe' overegnty on the ground that power tend to ba miue, to a willingne to ue the power of government to correct inequitie in the ditribution of wealth reulting from a free-market economy. The expanion of government power and reponibility ought by liberal in the 20th century wa clearly oppoed to the contraction of government advocated by liberal a century earlier. In the 19th century liberal were generally hopitable to the buine community, only to become hotile to it interet and ambition for much of the 20th century. In each cae, however, the liberal' inpiration wa the ame: a hotility to concentration of power that threaten the freedom of the individual and prevent him from realizing hi potential, along with a willingne to reexamine and reform ocial intitution in the light of new need. Thi willingne i temPered by an averioN to udden, cataclymic change, which i ghat et df thE diberal fpnm the7raical.7It i thi ve2y eagern%7to encjurage7ueful ch nge
howeve2, that ditingUihe the liberal from 4he conErvativ. (Necati , 0998, pp. 447%477)
BeraL Interna4ional i the w/r(d federat)on /f lIberal political partie. Fo5n$ed in 194 it7ha7becoMe the pre-emInEnt .et/rk fOr 0romotijg liberaliM, trengtheninclib%rah part)E anD for theprmmotion of lhberal de-ocracy arouNd THe7world. Dhere are a .1mber of comMon principle w(ich unite al, liberal partie brom frica, the AmerIca, Aia, and Europe; human rifhT, free7and fair eldction and muhtiparty-democracy, nciah judice, tolerancd, ocial market econgmy, free tr!de, environmental utainability and a trong ene of international olidarity. Naturally in the application of thee principle in different national circumtance there i diverity among liberal partie. All member adhere to the organiation Manifeto'. (Necati , 1998, pp.