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British Public

issues that gives legitimacy to the state, and stability to political system.
The reverse side of the British political tradition is ability to modernization of political system, creation of new political institutes for further development of a society and the state. The newest cycle of political modernization in the Great Britain has begun in 1970s years, but its most dynamical stage has fallen to the period from 1997, when the Labour party led by Toni Blair has come in.
Till now from the formal point of view the United Kingdom of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland was considered as the unitary national state with the one centre in London, possessing the inseparable sovereignty. At the same time administrative-territorial division of the country includes four regions: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, which long since possessed rather wide autonomy. Initially England was the state-forming nation, which has annexed or has entered the unions as the senior member with nations adjoining it. Long time, the leading position of England in a state order and governance was expressed in the fact that its name was a synonym of the name of whole country. At the same time the English nationalism was not ethnic, but civil, it became the basic source of formation of concept "British public". The British Empire, which has reached culmination of its power in the nineteenth century, became a primary factor in accumulation of the phenomenon of "Briticism", which long time was the basic identification for inhabitants of United Kingdom. However in second half of the last century after the empire came apart, situation has changed. In the British regions except for England national movements became more active, more and more number of people named themselves not British, but Scots, Welshmen or Irish.
The growth of national consciousness in the British regions of so-called "Celtic peripheries ", and also a number of other factors, has led to the fact that to elections of 1997 the Labour party has come with the wide program of devolution, i.e. handover of a part of powers by the centre to national regions. As a result in 1998-1999 the parliament of Scotland, Holyrood, liquidated in 1707 after the contracting with England has been recreated, the assembly of the Wales, the Senned for the first time is organized, and the activity of legislative Northern Ireland Assembly, Stormont, interrupted in 1972 after the introduction of governance from London on the background of civil war, is renewed.
The uniqueness of devolution is that it is not just a decentralization of power. In narrow sense of the word it is a delegation of a part of the state sovereignty to selected by inhabitants of regions legislative and executive organs of authority, at which the principle of the sovereignty of central British parliament based on the unwritten constitution of the country, remains secure. Theoretically Westminster has reserved the right to withdraw laws about devolution and to stop the work of regional authorities. However in practice it is extremely improbable, considering that legitimacy of regional authorities is considerably superior to that of local ones. Their election was preceded with referenda of inhabitants of regions.
In case of Ulster the government has moved even further. It has recognized the right of the province to separation in case in the future the majority of its inhabitants will express in favour of separation on the referendum. Moreover, the Good ...Show more

Summary

The political tradition of the Great Britain contains two components: continuity, which is traced during the long periods of time, on the one hand and variability, constant adaptation to changing conditions of this or that historical epoch on the other hand…
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