In the view of the aforesaid all the states by the system of government are divided in monarchies and republics.
In the given essay the republican form of board will be considered. Republic is the system of government, according to which the higher authority in the state belongs to elective bodies: to parliament and to president, which carry out the control over the government, there is also an independent justice and institutions of local governing.
The republican system of government was generated in the Athenian state. In the process of development of public life it changed, got new features, was more and more filled with the democratic essence.
Parliamentary republic is a version of the modern system of the state government when the supreme role in the organization of the state life belongs to parliament. In such republic the government is formed by parliamentary method from among the deputies belonging to those parties, who have the majority of voices in parliament. The government bears collective responsibility before the parliament. The government remains in power till they possess the majority in parliament. In case of loss of trust of the majority members of parliament the government or retires, or with the help of the head of the state achieves the dissolution of parliament and prescheduled parliamentary elections.
As a rule, the head of the state in such republics is selected by the parliament or specially created parliamentary board. Appointment of the head of the state by the parliament is the main kind of the parliamentary control over executive authority. The procedure of election of the head of the state in modern parliamentary republics is not the same. In Italy for example the members of both Houses select the president of republic at their joint session, but thus in elections participate three deputies from each region. In federative states participation of parliament in election of the head of the state, is also divided with representatives of members of federation. So in Germany the president is elected by the federal assembly consisting from members of the Bundestag, and the same number of the persons chosen by landtags on the basis of proportional representation.