The essay explores "Realism and Constructivism". Political realism believes that politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature. In order to improve society it is first necessary to understand the laws…
The main signpost that helps political realism to find its way through the landscape of international politics is the concept of interest defined in terms of power. This concept provides the link between reason trying to understand international politics and the facts to be understood. It sets politics as an autonomous sphere of action and understanding apart from other spheres, such as economics (understood in terms of interest defined as wealth), ethics, aesthetics, or religion. Without such a concept a theory of politics, international or domestic, would be altogether impossible, for without it we could not distinguish between political and nonpolitical facts, nor could we bring at least a measure of systematic order to the political sphere. Realism assumes that its key concept of interest defined as power is an objective category which is universally valid, but it does not endow that concept with a meaning that is fixed once and for all. The idea of interest is indeed of the essence of politics and is unaffected by the circumstances of time and place. Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe. As it distinguishes between truth and opinion, so it distinguishes between truth and idolatry. All nations are tempted-and few have been able to resist the temptation for long-to clothe their own particular aspirations and actions in the moral purposes of the universe. The difference between political realism and other schools is real....
4. Political realism is aware of the moral significance of political action.
5. Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe. As it distinguishes between truth and opinion, so it distinguishes between truth and idolatry. All nations are tempted-and few have been able to resist the temptation for long-to clothe their own particular aspirations and actions in the moral purposes of the universe.
6. The difference, then, between political realism and other schools of thought is real, and it is profound. However much the theory of political realism may have been misunderstood and misinterpreted, there is no gainsaying its distinctive intellectual and moral attitude to matters political.
Source: (Morgenthau, 1978)
Realism then is the more practical approach in understanding society. It takes into account the inherent nature of man in the understanding of their decisions and actions. What governs man is their interest more than their ideologies and ethics. This is the underlying belief behind realism. Therefore the term realism needs no further definition or explanation, everything it encapsulated in the word.
Of the threads that make up the Realist school, the most important ideas include:
International relations are amenable of objective study. Events can be described in terms of laws, in much the way that a theory in the sciences might be described. These laws remain true at all places and times.
The state is the most important actor. At times the state may be represented by the city-state, empire, kingdom or tribe. Implicit in this is that supra-national structures, sub-national ones and individuals are of lesser importance. Thus the ...
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(Realism and Constructivism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words)
“Realism and Constructivism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/politics/277309-realism-and-constructivism.
Many scholars have attempted to create schemes classifying the different branches and threads of realist thought that have emerged, while others have introduced a wealth of new terminology. In this paper we therefore discuss some of the theories of realism with a critical examination into the views of Morgenthau, Waltz, Mearsheimer etc1.
Social constructivism "brings the self-inflicted wounds of relativism, when the sociologist's own knowledge can be of no more relevance than that of anyone else". If relativism is accepted, then the logical requirements of sociology cannot be satisfied, and sociology itself is impossible. It is true that knowledge is socially constructed in the interests.
Constructivism obscures the politics already involved in representing reality. This is at the heart not only of constructivism's success but also of the celebration and despair it triggers. Those wary of constructivism object to the exclusion of challenging and thought-provoking questions about politics and the political.
The International Relations is one of the much debated and exercised arena within the domain of modern socio-political discourse as it has been witnessed by scholars, statesmen and common people that unless adequate developments can be initiated in this field, securing a better existence for the humankind might not be guaranteed.
In the educational setting, constructivism refers to the kind of learning that is active and constructive. The constructivism theory was proposed by Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, amongst others, who advocated that learning is practical, and that the learners must actively be involved in the construction of information that ultimately, leads to learning.
The aspect of IR has become an aspect of political science. The two world wars and the cold war resulted due to the existence of certain phenomena like war, diplomacy, the balance of power, the several implications of sovereignty, international law and strategy that were insufficiently treated elsewhere in the social sciences.
In this work, I am going to compare and contrast the various different views of constructivism by its authors and critics. I am going to look at some of the features that are similar across the three authors, the differences and reasons for existence of these differences. The three authors include: Ted Hopf, Jeffrey T. Checkel and Alexander Wendt.
The theory of international relations entails a course of varied lines of thought explaining the context and processes in which international systems work. The course of each of the theories is evidently backed with evidence accordingly. In this evaluation, the desertion evaluates the theories of classical realism, neoliberalism and constructivism.
One of the main components of U.S. foreign policy is democracy promotion. It matters to realism, liberalism, and constructivism, depending on how they see U.S.-led democracy promotion’s impacts on the international political system. These theoretical approaches vary in how they see the difference between projection of value and projection of power.
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