People's health continually worsens. The middle age of men for last years has made only 68 years. Each tenth child is born intellectually or physically defective owing to abnormalities at genetic level.
In the majority of industrial regions of the country one third of inhabitants has various forms of immunologic deficiency. According to World Health Organization (WHO) standards people of the Russian Federation is on the verge of degeneration. A great deal of territory of the country are occupied with zones of ecological disaster and extreme ecological situations. Only some small part of inhabitants of towns and little villages has a possibility to breathe the air, which meet the requirements of quality standards. About 50 % of potable water consumed by the population does not answer any hygienic requirements. The list of similar data is extensive enough.
Until recently in Russia in general there was no state policy in the field of ecology. Russia inherited a legacy of environmental problems from the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. 'The Soviet Union's emphasis on industrial production and blatant disregard for the environment has left Russia grappling with numerous environmental problems. ...
Furthermore, Russia's ongoing transition to a market-based economy has meant that the government has been strongly disposed to promoting economic growth rather than environmental protection' (EIA, 2004).
Such a situation becomes inadmissible during transition to market relations when ecological and economic interests come into conflict with each other. There is a necessity to bring to the norms of the ecological law of the Russian Federation for the conformity with the norms of international law. It assumes the development and acceptance by the Russian science and law the most effective international concepts and ideas in the field of environment protection.
During the past decade, the disastrous effects of Soviet development and industrialization policies have come to light, raising awareness in Russia of the need to protect the environment and prevent future damage. It should be mentioned that Russia has made a progress in addressing the Soviet environmental legacy. According to last international summits among priority directions in the field of activity connected with an environment following three directions come to light:
management of natural resources as a basis of eradication of poverty and steady social and economic development;
maintenance of population with pure water and protection of water resources;
preservation of a biodiversity.
Following these directions, priority in universal scale, Russian Federation has worked the priority issues named in three Russian documents of a national level:
The Russian State Ecological Doctrine;
National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy;
The federal targeted program Ecology and Natural Resources of Russia (2002-2010)
Environmental protection is one of the most actual problems of the contemporary humankind. Scientific and technical progress and strengthening of anthropogenic pressure upon environment inevitably lead to worsening of ecological situation. The majority of natural resources are exhausted, the environment becomes soiled, the natural communication between human beings and the nature is lost, physical and mental health of people worsens, there is never ending economic and political struggle for the raw markets, etc.
This paper has ranged across diverse possible institutional changes and reorganization that may improve democratic deliberation and the concern for environmental values within the process of decision making, constructs positive recommendations as to how political systems may be reformed to permit better democratic deliberation.
It gives the recommendations needed to explore the oil and gas without interfering with the environment. Moreover, it has the background of explorations, the impact of the products on the environment, a critical evaluation on the issue and implementation for the recommendations.
This treaty was availed for public signature in 1987 after which it got into full force in 1989 (Andersen, 2002). b. Implementation schedule. The first successful meeting was held in Helsinki in May of the same year. Since then, the protocol has undergone seven major revisions presided over in different cities of the world and at different times.
The new oil wealth is more effective for realising the foreign policy goals of the resurgent Russia.
Qualitatively speaking, Russia no more is a defunct military super power but a rising energy super power. Undeniably, Russia has inherited much of the former Soviet Union's hard power including a powerful nuclear arsenal and a sophisticated army.
Russia has followed an assertive and reactive foreign policy up to now. Since 1998, the country has grown stronger, with favorable conditions in the energy market contributing to an improvement in its economic position. The country has followed an intelligent macroeconomic policy which is reflected in its slowly growing power on the international stage.
In this study, as following from the title, we will restrict ourselves to the democratization going on in environmental policy making in the UK and we will also follow what are the practices and the principles, that apply there for the successful policy making and execution towards a safer tomorrow.
Vladimir Putin's international moves have sent some strong signals to EU and USA. Moscow's strategic cooperation with Washington and Brussels has given enthusiastic cries in those countries.
Our discussion today revolves around the nature of foreign policy of Russia and its pragmatic nature in the present day world politics.
Mikhail Gorbachev started a chain of events through his policy of Glasnost and Perestroika primarily aimed at vitalization of an economy that existed only due to the support of an authoritarian state. Once the chain of events was in motion, they had a profound
Russia still perceives itself as a powerful nation and has often used its power to portray its identity across the globe1. The country has made use of its great power identity projection through the utilization of energy
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