This paper aims to discuss the overview of democratic theory from Athenian times to present time including the theories of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, John Stuart Mill and John Rawls. It discusses how democracy has developed throughout ages.
The term "Democracy" started in Ancient Athens in the 5th century BC, they were considered to be the "Cradle of Democracy".
Such a philosophy places a high value on the equality of individuals and would free people as far as possible from restraints not self-imposed. It insists that necessary restraints be imposed only by the consent of the majority and that they are conventional to the principle of equality.
In Athens, the citizens participated directly in making their laws. The Greek system of government was perhaps closer to a true democracy or rule by the people than any other history. Their civilization was broken down to into small city-states, and all the men voted on all issues of government. It was almost a total democracy except for the fact that women and slaves were not considered citizens and were not allowed to vote.
The Greek system of democracy was ruled by a body of nine elected officials whom they called archons. These men who were aristocrats lead the government and had supreme control over all of the decree and criminal accusations in Athens. Problems took place when aristocrats became jealous of one another and rivalries developed under the early stages of Athenian democracy.
The democracy of Athens was used in many ways other than it was designed for. ...