The overall set up is termed polity. In a modern society the pivotal principle of polity specifies that power be legitimated by the reference to the consent of the governed, that is, each person must have a more or less equal voice in providing this consent. The arrangements in a society like political parties, lobby groups and social movements are the tools invented to express the consent. (Ritzer, 2000, pp579)
Hence the policy makers retain the power of controlling the process in their own hands. This exhorts them to opt for elite theory and makes them politically elite. But generally elitists do not opt to get involved in politics; they get everything done through political stalwarts. They even posses complete control over the entire government. Its size, wealth, status, organizational strength, leadership, access to decision makers and internal cohesion, determine the proportionate strength of an elite group.
While elitism cannot be challenged anywhere in this globe, pluralism is a supporting modality for elitists to reach their goal. Socially elite groups of Australia were trying hard for the upbringing of the aborigines, the 40000 years old primitives of the land. The Constitution of Australia prevented the federal government from directly aiding the aborigines. However with the help of the socially elite groups Australians got the clause removed in 1967. (World Book Encyclopedia, 1995, pp778).
The elite theory does not compromise in its core, that is, powerful minority rules the masses. However the perseverance of the elite group in accomplishing their goal imparts them a type of immortality. 'White Australia Policy' was in vogue for about 70 years since, 1901. The Immigration Restriction Act passed in 1901 excluded the entry of Asians on the basis of a dictation test on any European language. But an epochal decision by the government in 1993 that affirmed aboriginal land rights diverted the entire attention to aboriginal Australians. This made Australia close to Asia and 'White Australia Policy' was allowed to die slowly. A new official policy of multiculturalism was created, which was very similar to cultural pluralism, an offshoot of cultural diversity. (International Encyclopedia of PROPAGANDA; pp60)
Pluralism has paved way for smooth running of government in the land. The power of the Governor General of Australia to appoint more than one minister for one portfolio is the indication of the effect of pluralism conceived in a healthy manner. The Cabinet ministers collectively take major decisions on government policy matters and programs. They bear the collective responsibility on the decision arrived at. If one minister is not willing to support, he resigns and the remaining ministers who made the decisions shoulder the responsibilities. The business of policy making is normally done at Cabinet meetings of the ministers only. Since a Cabinet is an unofficial body it can conduct its business with flexibility, confidentiality and informality. The Cabinet primarily concerns itself with policy rather than the form of actions and legal restraints or legal instruments. It is the part of executive council, which includes parliamentary secretaries and some ministers too to approve government's subordinate legislations.
Policy decisions are normally arrived at after combining three important factors. They are: resources, evidences and values. The issue