But it is more often assumed than tested and proven. And on the politics political scandal is a black spot which restrain the flow of development and create a haphazard situation on the society breaking the peace and harmony.
Corruption is a disease, a cancer that eats into the cultural, political and economic fabric of society, and destroys the functioning of vital organs. In the words of Transparency International, "Corruption is one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world. It undermines good government, fundamentally distorts policy, leads to the misallocation of resources, harms the private sector and private sector development and particularly hurts the poor" (TI,1998).
Corruption is found almost everywhere, but it is stubbornly entrenched in the poor countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, it is widespread in Latin America, it is deep-rooted many of the newly industrialized countries, and it is reaching alarming proportions in several of the post-communist countries. The issue of corruption has to some extent entered the political and economic sciences from the new interest in the role of the state in the developing world, and in particular from the idea that the state is an indispensable instrument for economic development. The 1997 World Development Report stated that
An effective state is vital for the provision of ...