Realists of all varieties heed Machiavelli's caution that "security for gentleman is impossible if not it be conjoined with power." (18) Leaders wishing to defend their condition from assault must learn to master the planned application of power and act therefore in all situation and against all competitors. Clausewitz's dictum that war is a continuance of strategy by additional means (the sword in its place of the pen) suggests its reverse that "statecraft" is at its spirit war by political means: Why use a sword when a ballpoint will be sufficient But stay your sword sharp in the occasion negotiated agreements in the end fail.
Hans Morgenthau and Henry Kissinger, refugees from Nazi Germany who become key information in the American realist tradition, witness in the barbarity of European totalitarianism a warped moral fervor adversative to the fundamental person security upon which self-governing following systems depend. Failing to be familiar with the reality of Hitler's increasing armed power, deplete their arsenals, relying on treaties and declarations to remain the calm, open-minded democracies shaped the conditions under which the worldwide murder of World War II might no longer be banned. ...Show more