The intermediate power in the society such as the landed gentry, the city merchants, the tribal chiefs and others has effectively reduced the power of the state and negatively impacted the modernization (Lewis, p.225)
As per the Muslim belief any fight against the belief of their religion is considered as a sacred war (jihad) (The making of a modern terrorist, p.5) Osama bin Laden's dislike against the US started from the occupation of US troops in Saudi Arabia, the holy country of Muslims, to fight against the Iraqis. Occupation of a Muslim country by an infidel superpower, led Osama in declaring holy war against US (Global Studies, 228).
Terrorism in the name of Holy war started by Muslim fundamentalists prevented the Muslim community in the gulf region from concentrating in economic growth or modernization processes. The hostility of Muslim world against the US is mainly because of the US foreign policies against the Muslim countries rather than any cultural or religious differences. (Munson, p. 227) A reorientation of American policy in the Palestine-Israeli conflict can definitely bring down the violent forms of anti-American hatred. (Stanley Hoffman, 186)
The advancement in communications has forced the Middle East Muslims to reassess their beliefs. ...