The League of Nations was set up in 1919 at the end of World War I. The Covenant of the League of Nations was incorporated in the Treaty of Versailles on the insistence of US President Woodrow Wilson who tabled the covenant at the Paris Peace Conference with the words "A living thing is born" (Harney)…
It was to be an organization that would use peaceful negotiation to maintain international peace and security. Moreover, it would be an organization where all member states would be bound by the belief that all acts of "aggression and war are crimes against humanity" (Harney), and nations would therefore consider it their duty to desist from and prevent aggression. After any major conflict, prevention of future conflicts is always high on the agenda. To this end, the "favorite technique is to institute measures of co-operation and consultationwith a view to preventing war by moderating and restraining the free-for-all operation of the international anarchy" (Buzan, 163). Thus the setting up of the League of Nations, [and later the United Nations] was a paradigm shift from a policy of national defence to one of collective security. However, the League of Nations failed to achieve its goal of securing international peace and security, amply proven by the fact that the world was at war again within twenty years of its formation. Nevertheless, the failure of League of Nations cannot be called a failure of the idea of collective security. It was more a failure of political will amongst nations to look beyond their own short-term gains in order to make collective security a workable proposition.
According to Meg Harney, "While an excellent idea in theory, the League met with repeated problems simply because the nations had not adapted their foreign policy to change to look after, instead of looking after the interests of the League as a whole working unit". The lack of political will among the bigger nations to implement collective security is evident in the stand taken by the big powers vis--vis the League of Nations. The rejection of the Treaty of Versailles by the US and by extension to the League was almost a 'death blow' to the fledging organization. As a result of domestic political compulsions, US President Woodrow Wilson failed to garner the support of the Senate, which according to the US Constitution is the body responsible for ratification of any treaty. The Senate voted against the Treaty and as a result the US did not become a member of the League of Nations. This left Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan as the main powers in the League of Nations. According to Karl Schmidt, "The majority of the British public supported the ideals of the League, but the British government viewed the League largely with indifference". This was largely due to the fact that men like Lloyd George, Stanley Baldwin and Curzon who dominated the government of the day believed in the 'old diplomacy'. Lloyd George preferred, as per Karl Schmidt, "Diplomacy by conference - where the great powers would meet in a less formal setting to discuss problems - to any such system as the League". Apart from this, the British were also affected by the US defection, as they did not want to shoulder the responsibility of single handedly securing the peace in Europe.
France supported the League of Nations less for its idealism and more as a tool for securing its own protection. Ever fearful of an attack from Germany, the French leaders saw no difference between its own national security concerns and the League's collective security elements. Italy on the other hand, viewed the League with a certain amount of skepticism, which turned to dislike once Mussolini came to power, ...
Cite this document
(“Collective Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/politics/287426-collective-security-essay
(Collective Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
“Collective Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/politics/287426-collective-security-essay.
The two superpowers set guidelines for maintaining peace, whose guiding principle was that an act of aggression by any single state would be met by a collective response from all the other states. This security system was to respond collectively to threats or attacks in all states.
Optimal levels of exercise should be developed to fulfill the needs of the patient having cardiovascular disease based on the severity of the condition, gender, and age. The methods that will be used to develop the evaluation plan will be surveying of the staff attitudes towards the change, (that is, before and after initiation of the change) and comparing the patient’s discharge survey before the change and after the initiation of the change.
An outline of the proposed training programme on the new labeling process is appended below for review and comments.
Five staff from the Labeling process-it is imperative that these people attend the training. Apart from the above, optionally two staff each from the Packing process and shipping process may attend the training.
This thesis is structured in three parts each with sub-divisions. In part 1 (2.0 -- 2.9), we survey and review Information Technology Policies and Acts of Congress, Presidential Executive Orders on IT , Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars on IT.
However, along with these disagreements, states also try to make the world safer, where conflicts could not reoccur. Thus, in order to reduce the unanticipated and adverse situations, states have determined both familiar and prescribed, imperatives and establishments to direct their connections.
Expectations have never been higher: the UN is now routinely looked to for help to stop horrid things happening: people killing each other, for instance. But Boutros Boutros Ghali, the Egyptian who took over as secretary-general in the new year, is dripping cold water on the excitement.
Salads, Frozen, Biscuits and Puddings – operating across Chilled, Frozen and Bakery divisions – in both the retailer own brand (ROB) and branded arenas.
The main competitors of Northern Foods Plc are Nestle, Uniq and United Biscuits whereas Nestle has global presence in
Support your response with specific examples or details.
Discerning our collective cultural heritage with an in-depth appreciation inspires us to have the will to take custody of its security and preservation which by instinct, consequently permits us to
The stabilization of expectations about non-violent behaviour of others by the international organization in order to get them reciprocate by avoiding the use of force is explained.
The international security entails measures by