The end of the twentieth century is a period characterized by rapid and unprecedented change. As Smith and his colleagues (1999, p.1) discuss this idea, not only is our world becoming increasingly interdependent, but the nature of fundamental relationships between its parts are changing - and at an increasing pace…
1997, p.1). Many professionals ranging from commentators to journalists, from politicians to scholars across all disciplines, have tried to describe and analyze this phenomenon and tend to agree that "globalization," along with the halt of the Cold War, has radically changed the basic "rules of the game" for a variety of key factors, particularly states (Smith et al. 1997, p.1).
With the onset of this "globalization" and transnational companies, there have been long debates about the relationship of so-called sovereign states to each other (Wallerstein 1999, p.20). Wallerstein (1999) states that views range from those who emphasize the effective sovereignty of the various states to those who are cynical about the ability of so-called weak states to resist the pressures (and blandishments) of so-called strong states. Krasner (1999, p.34), on the other hand, reports that some analysts argue to the point that the world is entering into a new era, one in which the existing institutional structures, especially the sovereign state (by which they often mean several different things) is being undermined weakened, marginalized, or transmuted, by globalization.
According to Krasner (1999, p.34-35), globalization can mean some mix of developments that might include the legitimization of human rights, the digitalization of transactions, the speed of communication, the density of global non-governmental organization (NGO) networks, the transmission of diseases, the growth of international capital markets, the surge of manufacturing in geographically dispersed areas, the universal availability of MTV, the increase in illegal migration, legal migration, and the like. Most analyses that emphasize the growing importance of globalization point to the transformatory nature of modern technology e.g. costs of communication and transportation have plummeted.
Kelleher and Klein (1999, p.146) defines sovereignty in that "states accept no political authority as superseding their own." According to the principle, no international institution has the right to determine the laws and policies that apply to people within the borders of any sovereign state. Sovereignty, then, has the effect of designating government as the sole representative of the population of a state (Kelleher and Klein 1999, p.146). Krasner (1999, p.35) also provided that the term sovereignty has been commonly used in at least four different ways:
1. Interdependence sovereignty has referred to the ability of a government to actually control activities within and across its borders (including the movement of goods, capital, ideas, and disease vectors).
2. Domestic sovereignty has referred to the organization of authority within a given polity.
3. Westphalian sovereignty has referred to the exclusion of external authority; the right of a government to be independent of external authority structures.
4. International legal sovereignty has referred to the recognition of one state by another; some entities have been recognized by other states; others have not. Recognition has been associated with diplomatic immunity and the right to sign treaties and join international organizations.
Globalization: A Threat to Sovereignty
According to Krasner (1999, p.36), many observers have suggested that the increase in globalization is a threat to sovereignty. He asserts that ...
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(Globalization and Nation State Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“Globalization and Nation State Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/politics/290655-globalization-and-nation-state.
Certain experts such as Joseph Camelleri and Jim Falk observe that the world’s system is moving on to a new period where the institution of the state and its sovereign are being underestimated and changed by the different components of globalization. Even the truth behind globalization has been brought into discussion by the politicians and analysts.
Globalization aims at ensuring that there is free trade between the nations. Globalization aims at increasing the goods and services available in the economy. It opens up labor markets and competition among the producers in the nation ensuring that quality commodities and opportunities are available in the economy.
States are presumed to have absolute, supreme and unlimited power (Jackson 2007). As the trade and commerce grew among nations and mutual economic prosperity was seen as an advantage among the states, business relations became more complex, allowing for the development of multinational corporations.
The proposition is that it is an effective paradigm especially as a global economic system (Chong 2007; Hill and Rapp 2008). It enables nation states to develop faster and become more capable in solving problems such as poverty, ignorance and equality. But there are worldviews that oppose this assumption.
The essay considers the theories of “failure to deliver political goods” and “emerging anarchy”, the term "new war" in the context of globalization, the concept of “new terrorism” which includes the ability to create “ a climate of terror” and seeks to “eliminate moderate voices and to defeat tolerance”, and the differences between old terrorism and “new terrorism”
According to the report the numerous conflicts that have happened since, perhaps the advent of globalisation poses a completely different challenge. Many feared that nation-states will be a thing of the past, and that these would be emasculated as their national sovereignty is gradually diminished by the new order of things as brought about by globalisation.
It is possible to chat through computers with people from virtually any country in the world. Ultimately globalization affected almost every part of the globe and almost each countries social and cultural aspect. The universal declaration of human rights, the international covenant of Economic, social and cultural rights and the revised European social charter, as well as the community charter of fundamental social rights of workers and European union charter of fundamental rights are some of the international and regional instruments that are particularly relevant to the issue of globalization.
Smith and his colleagues continue that the unprecedented volume and velocity of international flows of trade, investment, information, cultural exchanges, and human migrations are creating a new, more tightly integrated, world and one that seems to be in the throes of some fundamental structuring (Smith et al.
h, a nation-state is a prerequisite for democracy, without which society remains fragmented and incapable of making decisions as a unit (Helbling 13). Every nation state retains its peculiar social culture, including its system of governance, which sets it apart from their
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