The growing debate between adoption and implementation of new laws to support budget transparency could be the point of discussion in this essay as there have been n new laws to support public management and legal frameworks in almost every different public sector enterprise in the last few years to improve transparency in the public sector…
The case of South Africa and Sweden are especially noted.
According to Lienert(2005) many countries have adopted comprehensive and deep reforms as well new and amended laws to transform the role of the state and the budgeting processes that are involved in the working of the state. The issues that have been highlighted include fiscal transparency and political polarization, performance oriented budgeting and financial accountability. Modifications in the legal framework that have changed the role of the state and the budget processes involved or supporting it could be highlighted yet these modifications seem to have been strongest in countries that rely on laws and decrees to introduce changes The emphasis is on performance oriented budgeting and fiscal transparency and considering that the legal framework does help in shifting emphases to the process of budgeting and methodology, the central role of the legal aspect could be well documented and examined.
However there are many obstacles to the proper working of the legal framework and its implementation to enhance budgeting and these could be differences between countries in terms of political systems and administrative arrangements or even legal cultures that could prevent the budgeting process from being efficient and transparent. ...
Such cycles are usually thought to be present in weak or new democracies although Alt James et al (2006) prove that such electoral cycles could be present in advanced and more industrialized economies as well. The focus on fiscal transparency along with budgeting transparency would bring about questions on the nature of the economy and the kind of legal framework such economies have.
If the legal frameworks are strong enough, fiscal transparency could be expected. Fiscal transparency has become one of the most important aspects of governance and financial reporting A definition of fiscal transparency is given by Kopits and Craig:
"Fiscal transparency is defined ... as openness toward the public at large about government structure and functions, fiscal policy intentions, public sector accounts, and projections. It involves ready access to reliable, comprehensive, timely, understandable, and internationally comparable information on government activities ... so that the electorate and financial markets can accurately assess the government's financial position and the true costs and benefits of government activities, including their present and future economic and social implications" (1998, p. 1).
The authors use a sample of data from 19 OECD countries in the 1990s, to identify a persistent pattern of electoral cycles both in the low transparency, and largely developing countries, although such cycles could not be observed in high transparency countries. Thus the authors suggest that electoral cycles in fiscal balance could be a feature of many advanced economies but not found in high transparency countries. This highlights the fact that not all advanced and developed economies would have very transparencies although some advanced ...
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(Budget Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 Words)
“Budget Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/politics/290781-budget-law.
The process of budget preparation is often complex as it requires inclusion of various aspects of the financial nature an organization. Budgets are mostly prepared during the late periods of a given financial year in order to depict the costs of the intended programs by the planning committees of given organizations The main aim of this paper is to answer questions of what factors and consideration are taken into account while preparing a budget and future prospects of the budget.
Balanced budget legislation usually allows for provisions when the balanced budget can be waived in times of national emergencies such as war. While many Western nations such as Germany the UK and Switzerland have a balanced budget provision in the constitutions, the United States does not (Jansson 15).
A day in the life of budget analyst Budget analyst is the person who analyzes the budget of the private and public organizations. Budget analysis means to gain control of your money. Bernard Meltzer said that use talent that you have, you will make your own world as well as those people who are related to you.
"The amount of uncertainty varies with the lags between measures and their impact on economic performance, and the volatility of the business environment. This uncertainty notwithstanding, it is critical for firms to draw inferences about economic performance from the kinds of performance they can measure.
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lving as it does the determination and periodic change of organizational objectives, the acquisition and use of resources required for their attainment, and the establishment of the basic policies which guide the goal-oriented activities of the organization, strategic planning
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Included are the Departments responsibilities to:
It is worthwhile to mention that efficiency of Macon Police Department is reduced over the years because of fewer personnel, low salaries, fewer chances of
In this phase first the appropriation process takes place in which the Congress has to make the decision of dividing the funds into different governmental organizations and entities as per their needs. This task is performed by the appropriations committee and then a particular legislation is enacted by the Congress that allows the governmental.
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