One such occurrence was in Spain. At that time, there were strong clerical fascist forces that were introduced by Francisco Franco. Consequently, antifascist movements were formed to oppose Franco's ideologies. These latter movements were characterised by anarchist militias. Antifascism was also visible in Italy; antifascist's uprisings in the early twentieth century were responsible for freedom from fascists. Mason D ed, (2003)
Perhaps the most outstanding depiction of antifascism was witnessed in Germany. This was during the Nazi era in the 1920s. Antifascists in this era took up a militant stand point. Antifascists at that time argued that it was necessary for them to defend themselves against those who supported Nazism. This was because they felt susceptible to their actions and could not be protected by another external force like the State. However that aggressive standpoint has been criticised by another version of antifascists who believe that violence should not be part of the principle. They argue that this shifts blame form the real perpetrators to the antifascists themselves. (Banton, 1998)
In light of the above facts, some contradictions arise both in the definition and in the practice of Antifascism. These latter facts will be examined below with the purpose of showing that antifascism should not be considered as an ideology on its own right.
Antifascism as an ideology supports the working ...
Such drastic political changes cannot come without a price. Most of the time, the government of the day will rise up in opposition to these movements and consequently defeat the very purpose of the antifascists.
This was especially visible during Hitler's time; it was realised that the only way the government could have power over its people was through repressive orders that overruled antifascists. With this in mind, antifascism beats the very purpose for which it was created and therefore cannot stand alone as an independent ideology.
Contradictions in 'revolutionary antifascism'
Antifascism per say arises out of the need to eliminate dictatorship ideologies. In that context, it cannot apply those same ideologies that it is trying to eliminate during achievement of its objectives; instead it must use other avenues that are less oppressive. Therefore antifascism goes hand in hand with democracy as opposed to dictatorships. This is a fact that is synonymous with the very nature and logic of antifascism. (Gray, 2007)
However, there are instances when a support of antifascism changes to a political embodiment. It is possible to be against fascism and not be an antifascist. The former signifies an individual who opposes ideas/ ideologies brought forward by fascists. Such people regard acts committed by people such as Hitler and Franco as appalling. However, an antifascist is one who takes up a political standpoint against a threat or a fascist state and they regard that party as an enemy that must be eliminated at all costs. This therefore means that the aspect of 'revolutionary antifascism' inevitably becomes a contradiction since it embraces a communist element. The problem with communist