Realization of values of democratic way of life and human rights is appreciably defined by level of cultural development of a society. Loss of any element of cultural heritage is an irreplaceable loss, it conducts to spiritual pauperization of all human civilization.
During last decades of the twentieth centuries multi-ethnic states became an arena of grandiose political shocks and great violence. The special attention should be paid to the fact that the majority of conflicts arising today in the world have a cultural component in a basis, as globalization, telecommunications and new information technologies change habits of people to identify their cultural difference.
The cultural variety today becomes a very significant issue in research field of international relations, first of all for the best understanding of laws of society life, organization of statehood and management in complex communities, prevention and resolution of conflicts. There is no doubt that cultural factor is obviously present in modern policy of international relations. Robert Garson ("extra information") states: "issues of culture, rights and justice drive international relations and international politics in a certain direction". ...
"culture is actually one of the organising principles of most political communities".
The role played by cultural difference and cultural
conflict in international politics
For the first time the question on cultural variety arises in world politics after the First World War I when the countries-winners have formulated the doctrine of self-determination on an ethno-cultural basis as the mechanism of abolition of imperial states of Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Turkey, imperial Germany and imperial Russia. A certain formula of "national self-determination" gradually began to gain a foothold as the international norm of state formation. There was an idea that the society should be culturaly homogeneous, and the state is a property of certain ethnically defined people (Hungarians, Serbs, Albanians, Poles, etc.) And certainly it should speak in one language and, whenever possible, to have one religion. It is quite natural that here simultaneously emerges a problem of "national minorities" and necessity of protection of their rights because of inconsistency between the doctrine of "national self-determination" in ethnic sense and created "the national states", which all the same always appeared to be multi-ethnical.
Radical change of global political geography after the Second World War has changed general conditions around the question on cultural and ethnic variety. There was a phenomenon of "ethnic purges", violent movings of the population on the basis of ethnicity, for the sake of achievement of cultural homogeneity of politically outlined territories or an establishment of so-called fair borders. "Nationalism, in both its mild and more virulent forms, has played a vital role