Air travel is of primordial importance to the United Kingdom's economy and prosperity. In the last 30 years there has been a five-fold growth in air travel. This vibrant air travel opened up opportunities: half of the population flies at least once a year, and many citizens have began flying far more often than that. The main challenge of UK aviation policy is to deal with the pressures caused by the increasing need to travel whilst at the same time retaining their commitment to protect the environment in which we live.
The present UK aviation consists of a global policy framework that achieves
stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would obviate dangerous man-made interference with the climate system. Aviation in the UK contributes an annual £14bn value added output to the UK economy, creating and sustaining 675,000 jobs, exporting £13bn per annum, and is directly responsible for transporting a third by value of our goods. (NATS and Trade Association in the UK, 2007).
Aviation is a global industry. Many of its impacts demand global solutions. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) must identify the way forward and set the framework at an international level for national and local implementation. The ICAO must consider both the national and international impact of proposed policies. Moreover, it should lessen the adoption of unilateral measures which may result in adverse effects on the UK aviation industry and the national economy.
Background of the Greenhouse Common
The NATO's Nuclear Planning Group created a High Level Group (HLG) to determine NATO's requirements for handling threat from Soviet nuclear forces. The HLG started analyzing in December 1977 and decided to deploy cruise missiles in Britain. Cruise missiles were chosen as these were cheap, accurate and it could be fired from different platforms. The HLG's modernization plan was approved in 1979. (Sean, 2004).
Then on June 17, 1980, British Defence Secretary, Francis Pym, announced in the House of Commons that 160 missiles were to be stationed at the United States Air Force standby base at RAF Greenham Common in Berkshire, and RAF Molesworth. (Parliamentary Debates of House of Commons, 1980). The first cruise missiles were delivered to the airport on November 14, 1983. (Sean, 2004)
The NATO's December 1979 information that it had set-up a base for nuclear cruise missiles in a British airport generated instant and heavy public opposition. The anti-cruise missile movement had expanded to include mass demonstrations, peace camps at the bases, and multiple civil action by various organizations. Public opinion against the cruise missile deployment strengthened the