The history of South Africa is never complete without a mention of the apartheid Era-an Era that witnessed the legalization of racial segregation between the years of 1948 to 1994. This separatist framework was designed to favour people of European descent, particularly in the economic and political settings in the then such Africa. The fact however was that the blacks were handicapped from exercising influence or any form of authority to issues concerning them in their immediate environment.Inferior treatments were meted out to the blacks in terms of the public services that were made available to them (Department of Health, 2004). Apartheid may have been a director consequence of British colonialism that sought to regulate the movement, of blacks to white occupied territories. More than ten different laws encapsulated the apartheid era. There was a laws prohibiting mixed marriages between whites and non-whites, it was considered a criminal act for a white to have sexual relations with other races. Citizens were registered on the basis of their skin colour. The country was partitioned into different areas with different governing structures put on ground for these different areas. There were further laws checking black migration to the cities and from sharing the same public amenities. Other laws mere the banks Education Act that brought black schooling directly under government control and thereby ending the running of schools by the missionaries, the law preventing illegal squatting, the suppression of communism etc. These and many more characterized apartheid or "Separatism" by South Africa.
The ANC is an acronym that stands for African National Congress and the currently ruling political party in South Africa with social-Democratic inclinations. South African blacks readily accepted this party as theirs because it had as it major mission, the welfare and the rights of South African Blacks. Formally called the South African native National congress, the ANC was founded in 1912 with initial founding members like John Lube and sole plaatje. The composition of the ANC at foundation included Local Chiefs, Representatives of the people, churches & etc with the sole aim of uniting the people in order to defend their rights and freedoms.
The supremacy of the whites was to be challenged when in 1944, Nelson Mandela, Walter sisulu and Oliver tambo jointly established the youth league of the ANC signaling a generational shift where non-violent mass action would be employed as weapon. The restriction of political labour and residential rights by the Afrikaner led national party, the ruling party at the time spurred the ANC to join forces with other organizations with similar ideologies on apart held in defiance campaign in which oppressive laws were deliberately disobeyed.
The ANC in the course of its struggle against apartheid, had many of its top members arrested particularly in 1955 when 156 top echelons were arrested after their adoption of the freedom charter as a fundamental document of the Anti-apartheid struggle in a "congress of the people" spearheaded by the ANC, this struggles continued unit 1994 when the ANC swept the rolls to cruise to victory and Nelson Mandela elected as the first black president of south Africa. This was achieved in Alliance with other parties though.
1. Apartheid legacies like Economic Inequality and land ownership inequality etc are still evident in smith Africa Today, though the ANC Government has taken steps to ensure this situation is reversed, there remains an obvious Gap in the income distribution pattern among South Africans. Less than 3% of