This study will begin with the statement that China is one of the most rapidly developing countries in the world. Many people believe that China may become a superpower in near future itself and the supremacy of America in global political and economic matters will be ended shortly. Even though communism is prevailing in China for the last few decades, it doesn’t mean that China’s internal and external policies undergone no changes. Some of the communist leaders in the past were adamant in implementing communist policies whereas modern political leaderships seems to be adopting more liberal approaches in implementing communist policies in China. Deng Xiao Ping is considered as the father of modern China. Even though Mao was one of the most charismatic leaders of China, his economic and political policies were strictly in line with communist principles. He never tried to dilute communist principles even for the betterment of China. However, the leadership followed by Mao was not so, especially Deng Xiao Ping. Deng succeeded in putting strong bases to China’s economic growth without sacrificing many of the communist principles. The leaders succeeded by Deng were also followed the same path of Deng and currently China is one of the most prosperous countries in the world. Interpreting China’s foreign policy is an important key to understand the tides of global affairs in 1990’s, not only because China, with the world’s largest population wields demographic and economic clouts, but also it arguably the most dynamic country in the second half of twentieth century. (Zhao, 1996, p.4). As a key player in global economic and political spectrum at present, China’s foreign policies are studied with curiosity by political analysts. This paper analyses the impact of changes in political leadership on the foreign policies of the People's Republic of China. Political leadership and China’s foreign policies Sun Yat Sen era Sun Yat Sen is often referred as the father of China. He assumed power immediately after the destruction of Qing dynasty, but forced to resign in 1912 because of his differences with the Nationalist party and the government. But he was successful assuming power again in 1923. He was a visionary leader who worked hard for China’s economic progress. “Sun summarized his policies in the Three Principles of the People--nationalism, democracy, and socialism” (Chinese Cultural Studies). He was a great admirer of Soviet Union and was keen in keeping stronger ties with Soviet Union. He tried hard to implant a Soviet model of economic growth in China. He was a liberal leader and was not much adamant in implementing communist principles. In fact he had respect towards democracy. After the death of Sun Yat Sen in 1925, Chiang Kai Shek assumed power and continued the good work of Sun Yat Sen. Chiang Kai Shek Era Chiang Kai Shek was the leader of China till the Chinese Cultural Revolution in 1949.he was successful in keeping China away from the two World Wars. He was keen in keeping good relations with Western countries such as America and Britain. He was a strong critic of communism and did everything possible to avoid the growth of communism in Chinese soil. However, October revolution in 1949, forced Chiang Kai Shek to accept defeat and hand over the power to communist leader Mao Zedong. Mao era Even though, Mao was responsible for the Cultural Revolution in China, his contributions to China’s economic progress were limited. He was a leader who strictly followed communist principles in all internal and external matters. “Mao followed an aggressive foreign policy towards China’s neighboring countries” (Hongyi, 2010, p.17). It should be noted that China attacked India during Mao era. At sunrise on October 20, 1962, China's People's Liberation Army invaded India with overwhelming force on two separate flanks - in the west in Ladakh, and in the east across the McMahon Line in the then North-East Frontier Agency. The
This paper analyses the impact of changes in political leadership on the foreign policies of the People's Republic of China. As a key player in global economic and political spectrum at present, China’s foreign policies are studied with curiosity by political analysts…
A transformation from communism to socialist democracy was visible in all spheres. This change brought about also the development of a socialist political civilization. It was a time when writers, a group of Marxist theoreticians, scientists and their disciple-students were lining up for democracy and forming a network
According to this philosophy, familial relationships are the foundation of the society. Children are expected to dedicate themselves to their parents in both their actions and thoughts from childhood to adulthood. However, this has been significantly eclipsed by the Western practices and thoughts as a majority of the families in China are influenced by modernization.
This paper explains the Chinese political system, as envisioned within its constitution. It identifies how the Chinese communist party functions, and its major decision making authority, referred to as the politburo standing committee. This is a committee of seven powerful individuals who have the responsibility of developing the Chinese policies.
They have a rich and varied history that stretches back to 2000 BC. The Chinese are credited with everything from inventing gun powder to helping spur, with their spices and silks, the trade and exploration which resulted in the discovery of North and South America.
He was considered a reformer by some people while others considered him as loyal to the Beijing traditional policies (Schmidt 2009).
I feature Hu Jintao in this paper as he has brought great changes in the Chinese economy. He is a transformational visionary and his leadership philosophy can be summarized in three slogans - "a "Harmonious Society" domestically and a "Peaceful Development" internationally, the former generated by a "Scientific Development Perspective," which seeks integrated sets of solutions to arrays of economic, environmental and social problems, and recognizes, in inner circles, a need for political reform (though studied, cautious and controlled)" (Wikimedia Foundation,
After the membership of the World Trade Organization, the developing country has turned into competitive field against the developed nations of the world. The developed nations have understood that after the implementation of the quota free regime, the Republic of China has captured and secured major share of the industrial and production activities.
Ownership of the enterprises was being exclusively based with the Government and taxes and profits did not make too much of difference and accounting was being considered to be a vital constituent of the total control system. However, several of the inherent flaws which were prevalent with the system relating to the differential forms of taxation structure made industries to suffer greatly due to the unfair means of competition among them which brought about a compulsion on them to bypass the rules so as to stay afloat thereby resulting in reduced levels of efficiency.
The People's Republic of China (PRC) and the United States have become major trade partners with common interests like the fight against terrorism and prevention of the development or experiment with nuclear arms. Stained by direct confrontations on the issues and war over Korea, and China's nuclear production in 1964, the relation relaxed when in 1969, the US relaxed trade restrictions and in 1972, President Nixon visited China.
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