There are several theories of the policy process, but the paper "Theories of Policy Process" explains three theories(The Punctuated Equilibrium Theory, The Stage Heuristic Theory, The Policy Diffusion Framework ) with their strengths and weaknesses. …
The theory implies some policies can only change if certain restrains like stickiness and stakes of an institution are available. Policies are categorized into long-term policies and short-term policies. An example is if the country’s constitution states that a president should rule for two terms it is very difficult to implement a new policy, which suggests that the president must rule for one term, or three terms.
Punctuated equilibrium theory seeks to explain simple observations like political processes. Political processes are continually associated with incrementalism and stability; they rarely produce large-scale departures from the past. Most policy areas experience stasis even though a crisis can occur. America is experiencing large-scale changes in policymaking and politics. Some Government programs can be altered in order to accommodate change.
The theory includes periods of stasis or near equilibrium. In the event that an issue is seized by a subsystem and periods of disequilibrium, then a macro political agenda occurs. A macro political agenda can advance to the extent of causing changes in the policy process. Therefore, according to this theory small changes result in large changes.
The theory is only applicable to situations facing stasis or equilibrium. In the event that there is no equilibrium variables and need for change, then the policy fails to exist.
The Stage Heuristic Theory
The theory states that the best way to study policymaking is to break it down to stages. ...
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“Theories of Policy Process Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/politics/821836-theories-of-policy-process.
It is ill-advised to believe that the goal of public policy formation and implementation is constantly clear or understandable. There are aspects left unclear, on purpose, so that large numbers of individuals with diverse points of view can discern their beliefs embodied in a similar ‘ambiguity’.
To this end, Slack (2011) explains that “Policies are developed in response to the existence of a perceived problem or an opportunity; they never exist in a vacuum.” This concludes therefore that a nation or an institution without a policy cannot be run successfully and that such a nation or institution is being governed like someone, walking in the dark – such a person has no guidelines.
It covers a wide area including both the spheres of the public and private sectors. But this is often equated with public policy, which will be the focus of this paper. In this context, the working definition is that it is the plan or course of action taken by government to respond to a political issue or to enhance the social or political well being of society, hence, making it the end-result of policymaking.
Something like water and anger power also flow downwards. But the quantum of power when gauged at the end user level it is zero. This formula is maintained at the making of policies itself, because the end-users are left with the 'fruits' alone. The end-users namely the masses are not concerned with the policies but with the fruits only.
In studying these forces, many researchers emphasized the important role of advocacy groups, also known as interest groups or pressure groups. Although many political scientists link the origins of such studies on interest groups to David Truman's (1951) work on group theory, the emphasis on interest group research actually started with Arthur Bentley.
The author states that the disaster management is such an important phenomenon that it needs a whole policy formulation to get it underway. Taking disaster management through the process of policy formation helps in making the institutionalization of disaster management not with an option but a compulsory one.
Outcome evaluations, on the other hand, are part of summative evaluations that seek to identify whether the program or technology resulted in significant effects on defined target outcomes (Fasten, 2009).
Process evaluation is meant to provide the evaluator
From the above discussion, it is quite clear that for any country to attain economic stability in the money supply as well as in the development of physical facilities; monetary and fiscal policies cannot be overlooked. In my opinion, governments must streamline the management of revenue collection authorities as a way of ensuring transparency and accountability in how the tax is collected and used.
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