Civil unrest and internal conflicts threatens the calm in most Arab countries such as Syria, Egypt owing to disunity exerted by the activities of the Islamic movements, each of the Arab nations comprise of different ethnic and cultural values with unique tribal makeup. Each of these tribes has different preferences with regard to governance and community demands. As such, the groups form movements with unique goals and objectives regardless of the ideology adopted. The goals range from demand for various social freedoms such as speech, religion among others to national recognition. Most are the times that the movements are at war with each other following differences that emerge over supremacy. The major concern lies with the tension created among citizens resulting in clashes within the Arab states. The high levels of polarisation in the countries have seen loss of lives, destruction of property among other social and economic consequences. Civil unrest has been demonstrated in various Arab countries such as Egypt, Libya, Syria following the wide spread Arab uprising. For instance, Syria is entangled in a civil war from January to April 2012 after mass protests seeking to establish political reforms.
The evolution of Islam to a political front has seen growing radicalisation and extremism among the masses calling for reforms. This has been seen as the democratisation of the Arab world, which has deepened erosion of governance triggering the aforementioned Arab uprisings.
These creates a concern among Arab states on the role of religion in politics and in an effort to separate the two, rifts emerge among those seeking to maintain the status quo and those seeking reforms. As such, the governance by the elite is threatened by the notion of a harmonious existence of Islam and democracy, which has seen different reactions to the same (Rubin 412). For instance, the government Turkey has been in the forefront to promote tolerance and address socio-economic issues such as unemployment. This is seen as a move to curb the radicalisation of transnational movements and the proliferation of related ideologies in the country. The extent of radicalisation, organisation, and funding of the transnational movements may see calls for independence. This is especially so with political groups that set up military organisation to assert their control over a region. As such, the affected country is faced with calls for cessation and recognition of independence of the region failure to which, rebellion and violence may result. The onset of the 2012 Tuareg Rebellion in Mali sought to emulate the Arab uprising, but resulted in a coup d'etat in March 2012 (BBC). The conflict has seen the rebel group declare independence from Mali and demand recognition in spite of rejection by the African Union and the European Union. This has seen sustained conflicts in the affected countries, and should independence be granted; other movements may emerge to claim