(Ewen; 2003; p. 42)
According to Freud, the mind is enriched with a fixed amount of psychic energy called "libido". Libido is also associated with sexual instincts. This libido when negate to grow furthermore in a child causes fixation, due to which in adulthood, the adult despite growing mentally continues with the same old habits which he used to adopt in childhood. "Because human nature is inherently malignant, we have no inborn wish to change for the better, and parents must pressure the reluctant child to proceed through the various stages of development. This task is fraught with difficulties, and some libido inevitably remains attached (fixated) to the pregenital erotogenic zones". (Nigel; 2001; p. 30)
"So long as most of the libido reaches the genital stage, no great harm is done. But if traumatic events occur during a pregenital stage, such as harsh attempts at weaning or overly severe punishment during toilet training, excessive amounts of libido become fixated at that stage. The child rejects further development, and demands the satisfactions that have been withheld. Excessive fixations can also be caused by overindulgence, as by allowing the child to engage in too much thumb sucking. Such intense gratification is undesirable because it is difficult to abandon and remains a source of yearning". (Nigel; 2001; p. 30)
Fixation may leave too little libido available...
"However, it is also possible for an adult personality to be marked by characteristics of a pregenital stage without being classified as pathological. According to Freud, "the fixation or regression of too much libido leads to neurosis. But how much is excessive Although Freud believed that neurological correlates of libido would ultimately be discovered, this has not happened, and it is impossible to measure the amount of psychic energy that is invested in a given cathexis, fixation, or regression". (Nigel; 2001; p. 45)
Fixation in adults leads to certain psychological gaps experienced by adults like pessimism, aggressiveness and rage etc. These gaps are identified in Freud's picture of the dark side of personality, which is capable of highly destructive and illicit acts. The point is any child cannot be inherently murderous and incestuous. "It is the ratio and proportion of Fixation that causes adult to take pleasure limited to watered-down sublimations of forbidden childhood desires" (Nigel; 2001; p. 26) Fixation is not limited to obstruct an adult biologically, the optimizing studies of adult psychological functioning and change shows the unsuspected possibilities of sexual underdevelopment leading to homosexuality or bisexuality ('gays' and 'lesbians'). Fixation not only disturbs the sexual instincts of adults, but also affects their behavior in a negative sense.
Ways to differ Classical and Operant Conditioning
Classical and Operant conditioning are events followed by individual behaviors bounded by reflex action. These behaviors lead to different learning methods. According to Nigel W. Bond, Classical conditioning (CC) can be defined as pairing in some relationship of a neutral stimulus, whether conditioned or unconditioned capable