Some of these children may have associated sensory, physical and behavioural difficulties that compound their needs.
This calls for the need of definition of these conditions that affect cognition and effect the ease of learning. In this assignment, the different approaches of assessments needed for these conditions will be examined and discussed so as to arrive at the most appropriate assessment strategy to identify specific learning difficulties. Although there are various learning difficulties recognised, the focus in this assignment will be on dyslexia.
Reading is a very complex skill and for this reason it is not surprising to find that some children encounter difficulties in learning to read. There are several identified categories of learning difficulties. These are dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, irrespective of the categories or classes, the students with any of these specific learning difficulties will require specific learning programmes designed for them since its has been observed that despite receiving an individualised programme and/or concentrated support, such children continue to make minimal to no progress in specific areas of their difficulties over a long period of time.
Pupils witThe Special Educational Needs Code of Practice (DfEs, 2003) further clarifies that
Pupils with specific learning difficulties have a particular difficulty in learning to read, write and spell or manipulate numbers so that their performance in these areas is below their performance in other areas. Pupils may also have problems with short-term memory, with organisational skills and with coordination. Pupils with specific learning difficulties cover the whole ability range and the severity of their impairment varies widely.
(DfES, 2003, p. 3).
However, despite this definition, the students are considered to have learning difficulties if these are 'significant and persistent, despite appropriate learning opportunities and if additional educational provision is being made to help them to access the curriculum' (DfES, 2003, p. 3). Dyslexia has been defined as marked and persistent difficulty in learning characterized by problems in reading, writing, and spelling in spite of the student being able to demonstrate progress in other areas of learning.
The word 'dyslexia' actually translates as 'difficulty with words'. More than a century ago, a school medical officer in England, W.P. Morgan, first described what he called a case of 'word-blindness' (cited in Doris 1998, p. 4). In the words of Shapiro (1998, p. 22) "one of the fundamental precepts of dyslexia is that affected children learn differently from children whose reading difficulty derives from low intellect."
The term dyslexia is currently applied to a severe and chronic form of reading difficulty found in children of normal intelligence, even sometimes of high