Dyslexia is a learning disorder caused by Neuro-cognitive phonological deficits to read, listen, write and spell. It is altogether a misconception that under-achieving of children is related to dyslexia syndrome. If it were, then Einstein could have achieved much more than he did as he nine when he started recognizing written words.
All disciplines would probably agree that dyslexia is evidenced by persons of otherwise normal intellectual capacity who have not learned to read despite exposure to adequate instruction.
According to The British Dyslexia Association, word 'Dyslexia' comes from the Greek language and means 'difficulty with words'. The British Dyslexia Association defines Dyslexia as, "a combination of abilities and difficulties that affect the learning process in one or more of reading, spelling and writing. It is a persistent condition. Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of speed of processing, short term memory, organization, sequencing, and spoken language and motor skills"(British Dyslexia Association, Online Journal).
Dyslexia causes difficulties in quite specific areas of learning. It usually affects reading, writing and spelling, but can also influence mathematical skills. The condition is hard to define precisely because dyslexia often overlaps with other types of specific learning difficulties which can also affect spoken language and motor skills (Mattis, 1978).
Although dyslexia can manifest itself in many ways, there may be a single cause: a phonological deficit. ...