The Stroop Effect

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The Stroop effect has been considered by cognitive psychologists as a useful tool in word recognition processes. However, some questions are raised whether Stroop effect and its reduction is lexical or not. To verify the facts a 2 x 3 repeated measures design experiment with type of word stimulus (congruent colour name, incongruent colour name, and non-word ) and type of flanker manipulation (no flanking word versus flanking word) as independent variables was conducted.


The study found that Stroop effect and dilution are lexical in nature. The results showed that greater Stroop effect is manifested when colour word is used compared to the use of nonwords in the test. Meanwhile, Stroop dilution is higher when colour patch is flanked by a nonword stimulus than with the use of colour words.
Stroop effect manifests in a person's reaction to recognize first the written stimulus by reading it before analyzing the colour it is written. It was first reported by Stroop in 1935 (as cited in MacLeod, 1991).This is an important process in psychology since the ability to manipulate or control Stroop effect has something to do with improving the cognitive abilities of individual and increases the chances of good judgment and decisions in actual world scenarios.
Several studies prove that Stroop effect is observed in different conditions and that dilution can be performed by different parameters included in the stimulus and the stimulus itself. Different authors argue on the context of Stroop effect and the process to minimize it which is commonly referred as "Stroop dilution". Kahneman and Henik (1981) challenged the generalized notion that reading is automatic response and indispensable. ...
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