are actually the result of maturation of neuronal circuits. This has transitions from one
stage to another, hence psychological development will also have similar transitions.
However, there is another factor that interacts with the expression of these transitions.
This is experience across families or cultures. These guarantee that these transitions will
not occur at identical age in all children. The psychological development corresponds to
growth spurt in neurons and dendrites, increased neural connectivity, and appearance of
neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Researchers have tried to understand the
complexity of interactions between the infant and the environment with the goal to
comprehend how the mind of an infant emerges from these interactions. Developmental
researches have found that capturing of the complexity and fluidity of developmental and
clinical processes was not possible with linear stage theories; and system theories would
just provide vocabularies for describing and understanding the process of emergence of a
child's mind. As the mind moves from simplicity to complexity, the component systems
unfold in modular increments, but the total system is fluid with no sharp demarcation
between stages. To add to this, the actual complexity arises from the facts that within a
component element system , there is a sequencing of modular unfolding, plus there is
intersystem interaction among elements and environmental components. It would not be
hard to know that the developmental impact as a resultant of these interactions may
be quite difficult to generalize as a process and as a result, to understand (Kagan, J.,
Cohesions may be present within interacting systems, and they tend to...
Easterbrook, M. A., Kisilevsky, B. S., Muir, D. W., & Laplante, D. P., (1999). Newborns Discriminate Schematic Faces From Scrambled Faces. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, pp. 231- 241.
Stern, D.N., (1974). Mother and infant at play: The dyadic interaction involving facial, vocal and gaze behaviors. In The Effect of the Infant on Its Caregiver, ed. M. Lewis & L.A. Rosenblum. New York: Wiley, pp. 187-213.