Running Head: ANALYZING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Analyzing Psychological Disorders: Schizophrenia, Anxiety and Anorexia Tutor It is widely appreciated that the brain and the nervous system control the behavior of a person; the link between biology and psychological disorders…
One of the most common neurobiological diseases is schizophrenia, a condition with numerous data gaps although it has been known for a long time. For such an important disorder, it is crucial to study its causes, associated brain areas affected, symptoms and treatment on the basis of biopsychology. Insomnia and anorexia are also two of the common disorders affecting people, and it is equally important to also study the two in the context of biopsychology. This can be done best through exploring case studies while analyzing them in relation to the nature-nurture issue and proposing therapeutic interventions alongside their advantages and disadvantages. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental illness that is characterized by problems in thought, behavior and social patterns. It is regarded as one of the most common psychoses, affecting about 1% of the world’s entire population which translates to several millions across the world. It is more prevalent in men, with statistics showing that it affects about one and a half times more men than women. Schizophrenia is heterogeneous, one of the reasons behind the difficulties in studying it as a neurological disorder. However, it has been classified into five categories; paranoid schizophrenia which is characterized by many delusions and hallucinations unaccompanied by loss of motor function and speech or behavior disorganization, disorganized schizophrenia in which the patient’s speech and behavior are affected, catatonic schizophrenia where there is difficulty in moving or excessive movement; undifferentiated schizophrenia where the individual bears symptoms of paranoid, disorganized and catatonic schizophrenia, and lastly residual schizophrenia where there only mild rather than full blown symptoms, usually withdrawal and disinterest (Bengston, 2001). Areas of the brain affected in schizophrenia The connection between the behavioral problems in schizophrenia and the anatomical brain areas affected is important in studying the disease in terms biopsychology. The forebrain serves the role of cognition-which involves thinking, learning and making decisions-, hearing and recognition. Skewed thought organization resulting in delusions, and auditory and visual hallucinations in schizophrenia result from the frontal lobe. In schizophrenia, the effect on the hindbrain-which describes the pons, medulla and cerebellum and serves motor functions and posture management-results in difficulty in movement and uncontrolled motor activity accompanied with little or no response to environmental stimuli. The other area of the brain affected in schizophrenia is the limbic system. It includes the hippocampus and amygdale and regulates emotions, learning and memory. Its impairment disorganizes behavior and interrupts the social life of the patient (Walding, 2011). Causal factors of schizophrenia The causes of schizophrenia are a subject of much debate, but several experts have settled on a number of factors that could result in the condition. Genetics is one of the main factors behind the disorder, with scientists observing that it runs in families. Statistics indicate that schizophrenia people who at least have a first degree or second degree relative suffering from the disorder are more likely to develop it themselves as compared to rest of the population. For an identical twin, the risk of developing the disorder is as high as 65%. However, scientists have postulated that no gene by itself causes the disease and instead ...
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