Considered as the most prominent psychologists of the twentieth century and a prominent lecturer at John Hopkins University, Watson’s work is generally used as a basic context in majority of the educational and introductory psychology books. In spite of that, his educational career was short, which lasted for just fourteen years, but his approach has been fiercely discussed for almost a century. Watson assisted to describe the theory of behaviour, the stress on operant conditioning by Skinner, and highlighted the significance of understanding, learning and development of humans due to the influence of the environmental surroundings. According to Glassman “ in 1913, Watson began publishing the first of a series of publications which outlined his behaviourist approach, which quickly gained him both fame and notoriety-his statement about shaping healthy infant in any way desired is characteristic of his assertive style.” The theory that every behavior is attained due to training and conditioning is known as Behaviorism which is a concept of learning. Conditioning or training happens due to the contact with the surroundings. The theory of behaviorism states that, behavior should be considered in a methodical and apparent way with no thought of the inner state of mind. According to Diane H. Tracey “two underlying assumptions are present in all theoretical versions of behaviorism. The first is the belief that behavior is the result of an organism’s or person’s response to stimuli. The second is the belief that external stimuli can be manipulated to strengthen or reduce an organism’s or an individual’s behavior.” The two main forms of conditioning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning demonstrates Behaviorism for the reason that it centers on apparent alterations in behavior and reaction to incentive or stimuli as representative of learning. Pavlov was the creator of classical conditioning as he observed that his dogs started to salivate as soon as they saw their bowls in which they were fed, despite the fact they were empty. He assumed that the dogs salivated as they had formed a connection between the existence of their bowls with the occurrence of their dinner. That means, the dog had “learned through association to connect their food bowls with their, dinners. Eventually Pavlov was able to produce salivation in his dogs by sampling ringing a bell” (Diana H. Tracey) This experiment proved that a response can be brought with the right conditioning and training. It is a practice applied in behavioral training which involves the pairing of stimulus that takes place naturally with a reaction. After that, the former impartial stimulus is associated with the stimulus that occurs naturally. Finally, the former impartial stimulus leads to provoke the reaction devoid of the existence of the stimulus which occurs naturally. According to E. Bruce Goldstein “psychology as the behaviorist sees it is a purely objective, experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness… what we need to do is to start working upon psychology making behavior, not consciousness, the objective point of our attack. (Watson)” Watson objective has been to eradicate the study of mind in psychology and to substitute it with the examination of the behavior that
According to Carol K.Sigelman “Watson rejected psychoanalytic theory and devoted a good deal of effort trying to explain Freud’s fascinating discoveries about humans in terms of basic learning principles."…
The constitution of the People’s Republic of China states that Chinese citizens ‘enjoy freedom of religious belief’. However, aside from the five ‘patriotic religious associations’ (PRAs) sanctioned by the state, which are heavily regulated, no unregistered groups can register religious groups or places of worship.
Language by ear (aural), language by mouth (oral), language by eye (reading) and language by hand (writing) were the different components. Relationships had been found between the reading and writing systems and they were divided into unidirectional and bidirectional.
What does the follwing article tell us about the relationship between place and identity?
Identities are of many types and two of them are personal identity and social identity. Personal identity is all about who a person is, and what his attitude towards life is.
The development in this era brought significant changes in the British society. In addition, numbers of political and social events took place during the period. The development introduced several inventions; among them was the ‘digital computer game’ (Space war), audiocassette and touch-tone telephones.
According to the report the state will need to turn competitive as well in the 21st century economy, the Scandinavian experience, especially the Swedish model, most relevant when discussing the welfare state policies, has managed to undergo only slight modifications to its welfare model rather than significant structural changes.
characterized by extreme racism which manifests itself in the areas of discrimination and social exclusion in the labour market, in segregation, in the housing market, in unequal opportunities in the educational system, in marked differences in general health and well-being
China’s Cultural Revolution ‘saw some of the most dramatic restrictions on the practice of religion ever seen in the modern world’2 and to a great extent, this continues today.
From the various forms of religious repression
A media of a country represents how the society behaves, reflect ideas and cultural values. The realities of a community or society are presented through media and it is the only means of accessing news for public. In the world of today, media has become as necessary as
Though his romantic work was never appreciated during the time he lived, Stendhal opinion on love and affection has been used in different fields in the 20th and 21st century (Toker, 2014, p251). Stendhal contribution
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