eraction (like smiling and cooing), to those that were aversive when not attended to (like crying) and those that were used actively by the child to come closer to the caregiver (like following). In 1969, Bowlby described the phases of attachment development in young children (Berger, 2008). He describes four stages – pre attachment, attachment in the making, clear cut attachment, and goal corrected attachment – that occur between birth and 5 years of age. Ainsworth further showed that the quality of a mother’s responsiveness was related to the type of attachment pattern formed by the child. Through their research, she and her colleagues were able to identify form patterns (Watts, Cockcroft and Duncan, 2009). Initially they identified the Secure attachment, avoidant attachment, and the ambivalent patterns; and in later research, they were able to identify the fourth and possibly least secure pattern, the disorganized-disoriented pattern of attachment (Papalia and Olds, 2001).
A significant amount of research has gone Into understanding the effect of day care on young children. A large percentage of the children under 5 years of age now receive care from individual who are not their parents for more than 30 hours a week (Watts, Cockcroft and Duncan, 2009). Research in this area is mixed, with some studies pointing out concerns, while others laud the effects of day-care. Research indicates that the most important aspect seem to be the quality of the day – care received by the child (Papalia and Olds, 2001). Day care centers that have small groups, competent and involved staff, and a high adult to child ratio seem to have positive effects on children, while those that have merely controlling or custodial staff, large groups of children with few adults and a lack of stimulating activities show ill-effects on the child’s development. Good day – care seem to have at least temporary positive effects on the child’s ability to learn and use cognitive