In essence, psychotrophic or psychoactive drugs have a tremendous effect on the central nervous system, and this result in a change, in perception and behavior. This paper analyses the biological and behavioral effects of psychotropic medications.
The first category of psychotrophic drugs are the hallucinogens and examples are; lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana, psilocybin from mushrooms, mescaline, angel dust, phencyclidine (PCP) and datura. Hallucinogens interrupt the normal interaction between the neurotransmitter serotonin and the nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. This interruption entails the hallucinogenic drugs altering the brain’s normal processing of an individual’s emotional, visual and sensory information. Essentially, the drugs make normal and real situation seem unreal. Hallucinogens also tend to bring about high blood pressure, dilated pupils and increased heart rate in users. Long-term and dangerous effects of hallucinogens are; mood swings, flashback, impaired thinking, paranoia, anxiety, extreme euphoria and hallucinations and drug-induced psychosis (Coon & Mitterer, 2008).
Stimulants are the second category of psychotrophic drugs, and they have the following effects; high alertness, elevation of moods and increases feelings of well-being. Some examples of stimulants are; nicotine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstacy), cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and caffeine. Stimulants excite the central nervous system, as they reduce fatigue and drowsiness and boost mental alertness. More specifically, the stimulants, caffeine, nicotine and amphetamine are catalysts that cause the excessive release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine from the nervous system resulting in reduced fatigue, heightened concentrations and capacity of carrying out more work. On the other hand, cocaine blocks the pumping of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and this result in a buildup of the neurotransmitter between neurons; and thus, feelings