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Substance Abuse Related Disorders - Essay Example

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Substance Abuse Related Disorders Name University Substance Abuse Related Disorders Substance abuse related disorders refer to those disorders that are caused by the abuse of drugs like cocaine, opiates, alcohol, heroin and other drugs which are excessively used by people…
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Substance Abuse Related Disorders

DSM-1V-TR describes the criteria for substance abuse which includes, failure to follow daily responsibilities, repeated excessive use, encounter with legal issues caused by substance overuse and continuous usage of the drug in spite of the physical or mental harms it is causing (Kring et al 2010). Substance abuse and related disorders have been highlighted through many incidents relating to many famous and renowned personalities. In 1970, the death of two famous rock stars Jimi Hendrix and Janis Winehouse, belonging to musical bands was owing to substance abuse. Some contemporary stars like Amy Winehouse, Kate Moss, and Rush Limbaugh have also been diagnosed with substance abuse related disorders and this signifies the high abuse of drugs (Durand & Barlow 2010). Some of the important substances that are abused include alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, opiates, stimulants and hallucinogens (Kring et al 2010). Substance Abuse Related Disorders are classified by division into two main categories by DSM-IV. These are Substance Use disorders and Substance-Induced Disorders. The former includes disorders related to abuse and dependence while the latter is caused by intoxication, withdrawal effects and mental abnormalities caused by this usage (Ruiz et al 2007). Alcohol is one of the majorly abused drugs all over the world. It is important to differentiate between alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. People experiencing alcohol dependence symptoms present with sleep disorders, muscle tremors of fingers, eyelids, lips and increased blood pressure, temperature and pulse. However, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria for alcohol abuse, a person experiences negative effects on his/her social and occupational life owing to the excessive usage (Kring et al 2010). Short-term effects of alcohol are produced by its interaction with the neurons of the CNS. Person complains of a slow thinking process and memory loss which is primarily caused by glutamate receptor inhibition. With prolonged abuse, endocrine gland defects, heart failure, Vitamin B deficiency and amnesia are produced. Hypertension, sexual disturbances, stroke and pancreas abnormalities are also some of the long-term defects. Alcohol abuse during pregnancy can result in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the child. The decreased fetal growth results in cranial, facial and limb deformities in the fetus (Kring et al 2009). Apart from alcohol, other substances included in the category of depressants include sedative and anxiolytic drugs which include barbiturates, benzodiazepines like Valium (Durand & Barlow 2010). Nicotine, Cocaine and Caffeine are included in the category of stimulants which cause a person to behave in a more active and alert manner after the abuse of these substances. In cocaine abuse disorders, the clinical features include increased alertness, blood pressure and pulse. The person is euphoric and has decreased appetite with insomnia. Repeated usage can cause this disorder and the person initially has a feeling of power and extreme strength. Nicotine use disorder is caused by excessive and repeated usage of nicotine which is an addicting agent present in tobacco. Nicotine is consumed through smoking, inhaled and also used in an injectable form. It stimulates the CNS initially and relieves anxiety and stress along with improving the mood of the person. However, in large doses and repeated use it results in high blood pressure, irritability and restlessness. It also increases the risk for diseases ... Read More
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