Most counselling theorists, researchers and practitioners sustain consensus related to attachment and its role in developing a therapeutic program of child counselling. Attachment is a fundamental and critical circumstance which either facilitates effective and well-adjusted emotional development or serves as a hindrance to positive cognitive, social and psychological growth. Generally speaking, attachment occurs very early in the infancy stage of development between caregiver and child in which smell, touch, language, and blatant caregiver exhibition of infant security determine outcomes such as trust versus mistrust (Holmes, 1993; Bowlby, 1988). The nurturing nature of caregiver behaviours serve as significant predictors of whether a child, in advancing years from infancy, achieve constructive self-esteem or positive adjustment in a variety of social systems.
Attachment, however, is not limited to infancy and differing variations of attachment occur throughout child development periods and, oftentimes, manifests itself into adulthood in relation to more intimate adult relationships. Counsellors that are charged with creating therapeutic interventions for children must take into consideration much more than the symptomatic problems occurring within the child when determining an appropriate set of counselling techniques, the counsellor must be aware of the role of attachment as a catalyst for poorly-adjusted child development. Schaefer & Gerard Kaduson (2007) iterate the importance of establishing a secure-base relationship between counsellor and child; an effort to create an attachment to ensure that the child feels secure and safe in the counselling relationship.