Environmental Factors affecting Infant development.
It is important for infants to survive in healthy and safe environments. The infant’s development is directly related with various genetic and environmental factors…
Sam was born as a pre-mature child. He was six weeks pre-mature and was born by Cesearean delivery. Due to his pre-mature birth, he was compelled to stay in the hospital for 72 hours before he could be discharged. During the course of his development from the zygote to infant, Sam was subjected to various environmental factors that led him to develop Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder(FASD). This was because, his mom was an occasional drinker during pregnancy. She drank heavily during the last trimester of her pregnancy. She was put through immense stress then as Roberto was laid off from his job. All this directly affected Sam’s development inside her. Now Sam has turned into a fussy eater. He takes short and frequent portions and remains sleepless throughout the night. Because Jane was under mental stress due to circumstances at home and financially, she did not sleep well during her pregnancy. She did not give enough attention and care to her health during her last trimester of pregnancy which has led to this. Secondly, Jane and Roberto live in the rural areas. Particulate matter in the air in rural areas could have also impacted the growing especially during the early stages of embryonic development. In rural areas health facilities are limited and are not as advanced as in developed areas. It is likely that Jane was not given proper advice and appropriate medicines during the course of her pregnancy. It is also likely that during periods of intense stress, Jane may have smoked. Smoking also harms fetal development. It impacts the growth of the child pre-and post-natally. According to a research conducted by American Lung Association, around 14 percent pre-mature deliveries are due to smoking. Even more alarming is how smoking is attributed to ten percent infant deaths. Same off’s finding suggest that there could have been other factors involved as well such as severe parental perspectives regarding the child, unskilled parental occupations, minority status, limited education and stressful life events. Sam’s short-term developmental outcomes: Sam has been subjected to FASD. Chances are likely that he would also be going through ADHD. He will have to be routing checking for his body size and weight, there could be limited movement in his joints, his head could be smaller than usual and he could have drooping eye lids but his eyesight, brain functioning, kidney and nervous system would be functioning the right way in best case scenario. In the worst-case scenario, his eye openings would be small, he would be suffering from near sightedness, he would find it difficult to move his eyes in the same direction, his nose would be short and upturned, his nasal bridge would be skin, his upper lips would be thinner, his jaw smaller, he would have poorly formed ears and various other permanent organ deformations. (Robinson, 2008) I also fear heart defects and heart murmurs in a worst case situation. In the long run he may find some learning disabilities. His retention power would be slow, he will take time to absorb things and he will also find his attention span to be really small. He may be a hyper child and severely hyper child during his childhood and his hand finger and body co-ordination would be weak. (Field, 2008) References: Article: Field, T., & Diego, M. (2008). Cortisol: The culprit prenatal stress variable. International Journal of Neuroscience, 118(8), 1181-1205. Article: Palenchar, D. R. (2005). Teratogen. Encyclopedia of Human Development. Retrieved from the Walden Library using SAGE Reference Online: ...
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