Theoretical Foundations of Human Relations

Theoretical Foundations of Human Relations Essay example
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Articles Adam Smith delineates the division of labor in society by using the example of a needle making factory. He contends that the division of labor is necessary to increase the efficiency as well as the speed of the overall operations. Compared to manufacturing, agriculture has little division of labor available since one person manages all the functions.


Instead, scientific management is about changing the mental attitudes of people involved in the production process. This involves both the line employees and the management. He contends that the root of current problems is how excess surplus should be divided between labor and management. Each side tries to maximize its benefit leading to strife. In order to avoid such a situation, it is necessary for both parties to work together to achieve more surplus than they can consume. Gulick expounds that organizational theory is essentially about the division of work in the structure. Division of work is required as more progress tends to make processes more complex thus requiring a larger degree of specialization. However, division of work is only fruitful when it fully engages the labor of a worker. Coordination is required when division of work is required. Controls have to be applied at different levels to ensure coordination in an organization. Only experts should be placed in positions of control to enhance results. The Western Electric Researches can be considered as the earliest attempts at discerning organizational behavior. The research was carried out by isolating a group of female workers responsible for assembling relays. ...
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