Language may influence these mental processes, especially thinking. What a person is saying influences on what he or she is thinking, and vice versa. That is why language may be called one of the key aspects of cognitive psychology.
It has always been difficult to define such social phenomenon as language. Each definition depends on the chosen approach. According to American Psychological Association, cognitive psychology investigates the way language correlates with consciousness of a person. It studies such mental processes as attention, language use, memory, and others. It is primarily concerned with how the mind creates meaning through language (Croft & Cruse, 2004).
Thus, language may be defined as the main tool of communication and cognition. According to the principles of cognitive psychology, language exerts powerful impact over cognitive processes. It is difficult to overestimate the role of cognitive processes – that is what separates humans from animals. Therefore, lexicon of a person may be defined as mental dictionary. It is a wordstock, cataloguing all the words which may be found in a certain language. In other words, lexicon is the vocabulary of a language. It contains representation of words, familiar to people. It also includes the way these words are spelled and pronounced. Lexicon plays a key role in the process of language use.
Each language possesses certain features – it is communicative, arbitrary, structured, generative, and dynamic. Its communicative properties enable people to communicate with one another. As far as the second feature is concerned, the correlation between language elements and their meanings is always arbitrary. In addition, this feature is also typical of symbols. The third feature, structure, defines symbol patterns as the non-arbitrary ones. Language structure may illustrate how