CYBER BULLYING AND CYBER VICTIMIZATION [Your name here] [Name of university] [Due date of paper] Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization Abstract The aim of this research was to assess whether cyber bullying (CSB) and cyber victimization (CSV) scales measure a single concept or a number of related concepts…
On the other hand, cyber bullying is positively correlated to physical aggression, social victimization, neuroticism, anger, hostility, and social anxiety, whereas it was negatively correlated to openness, self-esteem, and agreeableness. The overall results suggested that cyber bullying (CSB) and cyber victimization (CSV) are correlated terms. Introduction Cyber bullying is the type of harassment that is done through electronic means. As Menesini and Nocentiti (2009) state, ‘cyberbullying is growing around the world’ (p. 230). According to Perren, Dooley, Shaw, and Cross (2010), it presents challenges to victimized people. It gives rise to stress, aggression, and other negative feelings in the targeted person (Moore, Huebner, & Hills, 2012). Cyber victimization, on the other hand, refers to ill-treatment or exploitation and has its connection with psychosocial maladjustment (Card & Hodges, 2008). Both cyber bullying and cyber victimization are somewhat interrelated concepts and are aimed towards victimizing some other person or a group of people through the Internet, cell phones, and other communication tools and equipment (Smith et al., 2008, p. 376; Cetin, Yaman, & Peker, 2011; Tokunaga, 2010). In this paper, I will assess whether the concepts of cyber victimization (CSV) and cyber bullying (CSB) measure a single concept or a number of related concepts. The constructs that the scales would measure include hostility, social victimization, verbal aggression, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, agreeableness, anger, social anxiety, openness, and physical aggression. These constructs are the real outcomes of cyber bullying and victimization (Menesini, Nocentiti, & Calussi, 2011). Therefore, I will measure all of them to determine their connection with cyber bullying and victimization. I will use two different hypotheses to determine the level of similarity between the two concepts. Hypothesis for Convergent Validity For convergent validity, I hypothesized that CSB would correlate positively with Buss-Perry measures and negatively with agreeableness, whereas CSV would correlate positively with social victimization and negatively with self-esteem. Hypothesis for Divergent Validity For, divergent validity, I hypothesized that CSB would not correlate with five-factor measures or anxiety and CSV would not correlate with Buss-Perry. Factor Analysis I used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) instead of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE). The main reason that made me use PCA instead of MLE was that I considered the analysis exploratory rather than confirmatory. For an exploratory analysis, PCA is considered a better option. MLE, on the other hand, is better for confirmatory analyses. MLE requires a larger sample size than PCA, in particular, to avoid the risk of type 2 error. In order for type 2 error rate to be in the acceptable range, one would need at least 390 to 650 participants (minimum 30 to 50 cases per independent variable and 13 independent variables). Another reason that made me use PCA was that PCA aims to maximize the variance explained. It does not assume that all variance will be explained by the factors (Murray et al., 2009). Discussion From the results, we came to know that CSB and CSV scales were positively correlated. Excluding CSB F2, CSV F1, and CSV F3, all subscales ...
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(Maggio 2008, p. 273) It does not only reinforce traditional forms of bullying but actually elevates them to a level that we have never seen before. In the past, young people used to experience being threatened and harassed only in school or somewhere - in places and activities wherein they interact with their peers – the school bus, community grounds, etc.
Cyber bullying is mostly common activity among teenagers who strengthens this practice within social groups in schools and colleges. There are many types of cyber bullying like student making fun of another classmate or school fellow by making a webpage links and then spreading it so that he or she can be embarrassed in front of the whole school or college.
According to research, it is evident that cyber bullying is of enormous concern among teenagers and is becoming wide spread. Cyber bullying has been potential of following an individual into the house and even the bedroom. In most cases, victims feel that they have nowhere to hide.
It has become a virtually indispensable tool in education, entertainment, government, and business world (Willard, 2007). While it has become critical in the daily lives of adults, the internet has also become a major part of the children’s lives. Children use the internet for education purposes, online communication and social networking.
About half of all teenagers report they have experienced cyber-bullying to some extent driving some to contemplate suicide. It is a concerning issue for young persons and their parents who may not know how to effectively address this new phenomenon if they are aware it occurring to their child at all.
Indeed, information technology has changed the lives of people across the globe. Information technology has reduced the world to a global village through fostering of advanced forms of communication. However, with the advancements in information technology have arisen insecurity issues.
However, at the same time they have introduced a wide variety of threats and crimes. In this scenario, cyberbullying is one of the latest emerging crimes that are performed with the support of digital media. Basically, cyberbullying is the latest form of digital media or electronic (by means of computers and mobile phones) harassment or blackmailing that is repeated eventually and entails a power inequality.
In extreme cases, it also results in suicide, particularly among vulnerable adolescents, so the seriousness of the problem is clear. In the modern era, as shocking as it is to many people to believe, bullying has come to the digital age and is resulting in kids and teenagers being taunted in almost every imaginable manner.
It is my strong conviction that my performance in this assignment can be tracked by reviewers from the way I am presenting it. In the event that I need any assistance, I will let my peer reviewer know that.
This research study