Evidence indicates that juvenile delinquency and arrests are exponentially on the increase.
Juvenile crimes often encompass violent crimes, property crimes and even status offenses like smoking by underage persons. Juvenile delinquency has been proved to be more prevalent in young boys than it is in girls with most experts asserting that this phenomenon is a result of masculinity which renders boys more likely to commit offenses with toughness, power, aggression, valiance and competition their preferred way of expressing and asserting this masculinity. Other factors that are thought to result in this variation include treatment of the boy child and genetic make-up (specifically the 10-repeat allele of the dopamine transporter gene DAT1). Furthermore, juvenile delinquency is more rampant in certain races, that is, blacks and Latinos. Poverty/ low socioeconomic statuses have been cited as the chief cause of this disparity alongside other factors such as parenting (such as harshness and negligence) and peer influence (Shoemaker, 2009).
There exist a number of predisposing factors that quite commonly result in juvenile offenses. Parenting style is one of them with permissive parenting (featuring poor/ lack of discipline at homes), neglectful parenting (encompassing the absence of parental monitoring and knowledge of the activities of a child), indulgent parenting (where the child is overly indulged and left to spoil) and authoritarian parenting (where there is harshness in instilling discipline in a child with no explanations for such actions whatsoever) blamed for many juvenile delinquency cases. Other factors of risk in juvenile delinquency include peer pressure, poverty, poor school grades/ performances, peer rejection, high levels of serotonin (which causes bad tempers and low self control), low resting heart rate (causing fearlessness) and ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) (Shoemaker, 2009).
There have equally been mentioned other