In the 1950s treatment of the mental health illness was only given in big state hospitals and other mental institutions. During this period, treatment by means of pharmaceutical drugs was budding and there did not exist an affordable community based mental health centers. In an increasingly urbanized society, families would rather send their ailing family members to these institutions rather than take care of them. These state mental health institutions were perceived as humane compared to homelessness or incarceration. The patients taken to these institutions would spend many days there (Anderson and Cannova) The invention of new pharmaceutical drugs enabled the control of the extreme behavior of the patients living in these institutions and hence it was considered more humane to allow the patients to go and get treatment in their community. The Community Mental Health Act of 1963, supported by President John Kennedy, provided federal financing to the states to establish community mental health centers. The community health centers became an essential part of the upcoming community health society. However, lack of adequate funding undermined the effort to provide mental health care to all those patients who had been deinstitutionalized. Due to institutionalization, patient population in the state mental hospitals reduced from about 560, 000 in 1955 to below 100,000 in the 1990s (“Timeline: Treatments for Mental Illness”). This deinstitutionalization process has led to the elimination of about 90% state mental health hospital beds (Unite For Sight). Nevertheless, efforts to establish an adequate community based psychiatric system to cater for all mental patients have failed. The progress of pharmaceuticals fostered the reliance on pharmaceutical drugs rather than hospital care for mental health, surgical and medical care. The business model of mental health treatment prompted the medicalization of medical psychiatric care hence detaching it from the mental health support services. Managed care became the customary way of systematizing health care after the efforts to reform the national health care, in 1992, failed. The increase in the dependence on pharmaceutical care in combination with managed care resulted in a decrease in talk therapy and the availability of support services to deinstitutionalized individuals reduced (Anderson and Cannova). Bill Wilson, founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, in his speeches to the medical societies in the 1940s and 1950s he emphasized the crucial role of leading psychiatrists in the growth of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Yet there emerged a split between the treatment of mental diseases and treatment of substance abuse & addiction each of which required a unique treatment. The stigma connected with these two sets of disorders combined with the failure of health community care to comprehend the interrelationship resulted in a circumstance where patients with both disorders were in a state of confusion since none of these health care systems (AA and community care) could fully treat both disorders. The situation has now improved due to the great advances in mental illness research which has made clear the underlying disease processes at work and identified the appropriate treatments to diagnose both disorders simultaneously (Anderson and Can
Sur Date: Psychological Disorders Since the 1950s, there have been many changes regarding mental illness in terms of the care of the patients and the finance. The definition of mental illness has also been broadened to include cases of non- psychotic disorders since the 1950s and the negative attitudes and stereotypes have drastically decreased…
According to the current DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, the characteristic symptoms of the disease are (Hirsch & Weinberger, 2003): 1. The patient must be experiencing at least one of the primary symptoms of: Bizarre delusions Third person auditory hallucinations Running commentary 2.
For one, these tests provide a better understanding of one’s self in terms of the traits, characteristics and states which make up personality – defined as the “relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize an individual and his or her reactions to the environment” (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2001, p.
It is often characterized as an individual’s inability to relate with physical manifestations that include “lack of eye contact, scripting or repeating language from television shows or movies, lack of imaginative play, or inflexibility with minor changes in schedule (177).
The three mental illnesses mentioned Non melancholic Depression, Anxiety, Trauma Post-traumatic Stress are physiological symptoms which are characterized by the changes in the cognitive, emotional and behavioral functioning of the person. The three conditions mentioned above have their origin in the mental states which adversely impacts the functioning of the organism and the physiological performance of the individual.
Ultimately, good examples will be given in this research, in regards to the disorders, and the signs, symptoms, signals, affects on the individual, diagnosis, and the possible prognosis of each.
A major depressive disorder affects a number of people every year.
Many psychological diseases can be classified as syndromes, consistent groups of symptoms that do not always have a single cause. Physical causes include major brain trauma, accidental head injury, and drug use, such as alcohol and narcotics. In addition, certain kinds of toxic substances, such as heavy metals, can induce psychological disorders.
disease, the leading hypothesis is based on an overabundance of dopamine in the brain, and both typical and atypical anti-psychotic medications can be used in the treatment of the disease. According to the current DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, the characteristic
In regard to the auditory hallucination, the patient heard voices of people telling him to kill himself. It was upon the doctors to deduce the condition and have appropriate treatment to ward him off the problem as the relatives had become concerned