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Autism, demographics of the disease, diagnosis, and treatment - Research Paper Example

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Autism, demographics of the disease, diagnosis, and treatment

9; “Diagnostic criteria”, 2010). Autism has several names such as Asperger or Asperger’s Syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), Rett’s disorder, and childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) which is sometimes referred to as Heller’s syndrome or disintegrative “psychosis”. Asperger’s syndrome is also sometimes called autistic psychopathy. Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) sometimes termed atypical PDD or atypical autism technically refers to all these disorders, or to the entire group of conditions. All these terms have been placed under the umbrella term “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD) but different ASDs may vary in the number and intensity of the behavioral symptoms manifested. (Cecile-Kira, 2004) Asperger’s Syndrome was first reported in 1944 when Dr. Asperger wrote on his clinical findings of the children he studied who were fraught with difficulties. Many of the children could talk, some could name things in their environment, while others could count or say the alphabet and recite whole books word for word from memory. But the children had difficulty in speech communication and had other learning problems aside from their unusual behaviors. (Shore, Grandin, & Rastelli, 2006) 2. Literature Review 2.1 Diagnostic criteria Asperger’s Syndrome is distinguished from more “classic” autism, which involves language and cognitive delays, but not from “high-functioning autism,” in which individuals may have average to above-average intellectual abilities. Many individuals with ASD know words that others do not have the uncanny ability to use them correctly in sentences. Autistic children often answer questions by relying on rote memory without truly comprehending the answer. (Myles, Adreon, & Gitlitz, 2006) Autistic children fail to use eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, or body posture and do not ask when they need comfort or affection or show such feelings. They don’t respond to people’s distress or happiness or greet people when greeting is needed. During play time, they seldom initiate interactive play. Peer friendship is not within their realm because they don’t share interests, activities, and emotions. (Rutter & Schopler, 1988, p. 19) Autistic children lack the capacity to use language for social communication. As they slowly develop their spoken language, this is not compensated for by use of gesture or mime as alternative modes of communication. They fail to respond to communication by others and do not respond when called by name. They use stereotype and repetitive and idiosyncratic language. There are abnormalities in communication pitch, stress, rate, rhythm, and intonation of speech. (Rutter & Schopler, 1988, p. 19) Autistic infants are not like the normal ones. It is also different from deaf children who lack speech because they are able to communicate by other means, but autistic children do not. Autistic adults who are able to speak fluently are likely still to show abnormalities in the flow of conversational interchanges, a formality of language, a lack of emotional expression in speech, and a lack of fantasy and imagination. (Rutter & Schopler, 1988, p. 19) 2.2 Current demographics for autism A rough estimate states that there are about ...Show more
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Summary

AUTISM: DEMOGRAPHIC, DIAGNOSIS, & TREATMENT 1. Introduction An official definition of autism from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV), a handbook of the American Psychological Association, states that autism is a ‘qualitative impairment in social interactions’ which means that it is a form of disability where an individual is not able to interact properly, or not being able “to form peer relationships”…
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