Cunningham focuses on theoretical frameworks that look into the issues that reflect the diversity of religion in the current modern society and the ideologies that characterize these religions. According to him, the fundamental concepts of ritualistic practice, use of sacred language, religious ethics, salvation and the evil-related problems to religion are factors that affect the thoughts and practices on the various religions present in the world.
The major attributes Cunningham asserts in the book affirm concern the state of sacredness. In chapter three and four, he provides the various things in which sacredness can be attributed to; such as having sacred objects, time and spaces. He also overlooks the fact that many traditions in the pre-modern society practiced complex religious practices in the name of upholding them as their trademark sacred appearances (Cunningham & Kelsay. 23). Cunningham supports the notion of the use and preservation of the sacred language as a means to communicate with God since the traditional times. Mythical assessments of the use of oral and spiritual cultures for sacredness preservation. He uses his catholic faith to propose some of the sacred rituals that Christians ought to conduct; the Passover feats, the Holy Communion (The Eucharist) as well as the religious rites of passage (birth, initiation and mourning of the dead). The conduction of certain rituals among Christians has the religious meaning of adoration of Christ, thanksgiving to God, petition and purification from sin. The logical placement of sacredness in the book is bias of other religions, such as the Muslims, pagans, and Buddhists among others. Religion of diverse and every religion have its own characteristics of sacredness. The perpetuation of Catholic faith in particular does not provide the rational framework towards understanding the fundamentals of all religion. However, the accreditation of the sacredness in the realm of Christianity and sacred reality according to Cunningham provides a means to understand why people affiliate themselves to religious experiences and beliefs. It is hard to find the actual meaning of sacred it has various meaning reading from religious to traditional perspectives. Cunningham describes sacred as something with as something which is extra-ordinary or beyond the human comprehension. Scared ranges between reality and the imaginary world (Cunningham & Kelsay. 24). According to Cunningham, various religious concepts link the extra-ordinary and the ordinary to bring out the vivid picture of sacred. The extra-ordinary aspect of sacred is attributed to gods and supernatural powers. It is through this concept that theories of human origin have been derived aside from the biblical story of creation. God is preeminently sacred according to the bible. His place of dwelling is also referred to a sacred place. Christian perceives the church to be a sacred place as it is God’s dwelling place. Religion and traditional view sacred as distinct and tries to connect the point of distinction with reality through relating religious aspects with ordinary. Communal shrines. Trees, the sky, rocks and rivers are linked with holiness as they are perceived to be the dwelling place of a supreme being. Such places are believed to poses divine powers thus people refrain from accessing them as they are powerful should not be contaminated by mixing with the ordinary. The Catholics for instance have the holy water which is believed to contain the power to heal various diseases as well as drive away demons from possessed people. People can also be classified as holy.