Polygamy is simply a legal and religious permission in Islam for men to marry four women at a time. Although this command is more like an option, but not an obligation to all Muslims. In Islam and other religions, polygamy has been established and valued as an important institution (Philips and Jones). Even, before the advent of Islam in the Arab countries, the concept of polygamy used to exist, but it was in its worst form particularly because of illiteracy, absence of social or civic sense, and status of women in the society. When Islam came to light in the Arab countries, a number of issues were resolved; one of the most important one was the status of women in the society and matters of multi-marriages. Islam has redeveloped the institution of marriage as it has allowed men to marry four women for the purpose of helping needy women (Philips and Jones). It has furthermore ordained men to give equal rights to women in every regard. This paper aims to discuss a crucial matter of polygamy within the context of Islamic way of lifestyle elaboration and guidelines of Prophet Mohammad PBUH, the messenger of God. Additionally, we shall also spotlight the status of women before and after Islam, their rights, and orders sent by God in Quranic verses regarding welfare of widows, needy and divorced women. The role of Muslim men is to protect the rights of women by following obligations of God. Polygamy Before and After: A Historical Reference The status of women before and after Islam is entirely different, and it also varies in several Muslim states. Differentiation in the status of women in Islam interprets laws and religious teachings of Islam in different manners. Historic data about Islamic teachings and status of women in the Arab countries reveals that before the advent of Islam women were highly devalued in societies. Attitude of men towards women was extremely negative as women had no dignity, position or honor in the society. Prior to Islam, the status of women was sighted as nothing, but a household good. Women, before the advent of Islam were treated as animal and bought and sold like any other non-living item (Khan). On the contrary, it can be said that some women who belonged to the noble tribes and valuable families of Arab had respect and dignity in the society up to some extent, unlike ordinary women. For instance, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, who was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad belonged to the famous and most powerful tribe of Banu Quraish. Khadija had gained respect in the society mainly because of her strong family background as her father was a successful businessman and powerful merchant of that time and Khadija inherited all wealth and dignity from her father (Haylamaz). But, such respect and value in the society was limited to only few women of strong and powerful tribes, who used to have control over different localities in the Arab land. Whereas, overall criterion was that women was considered as a hateful object, birth of a girl in any family was considered as a curse and people used to bury their daughters alive after birth. On such cruelty, God criticized and stated in Quran, "When news is brought to one of them, of the birth of a female child, his face darkens, and he is filled with inward grief! With the shame does he hide himself from his people because of the bad news he has had! Shall he retain her on (sufferance) and contempt, or bury her in the dust? Ah! What an evil choice they decide on?"